Fy/F' = (-720,000 + 4200 - 2.75T2)10-6 800°F < T < 1200°F (1.10)

E/E' = 1 - T50010()0 100°F < T < 700°F (1.11)

E/E' = (500,000 + 1333T - 1.111T2)10-6 700°F < T < 1200°F (1.12)

a = (6.1 + 0.0019T)10-6 100°F < T < 1200°F (1.13)

In these equations Fy/Fy and E/E are the ratios of elevated-temperature to room-temperature yield strength and modulus of elasticity, respectively, a is the coefficient of thermal expansion per degree Fahrenheit, and T is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

Ductility of structural steels, as indicated by elongation and reduction-of-area values, decreases with increasing temperature until a minimum value is reached. Thereafter, ductility increases to a value much greater than that at room temperature. The exact effect depends on the type and thickness of steel. The initial decrease in ductility is caused by strain aging and is most pronounced in the temperature range of 300 to 700°F. Strain aging also accounts for the increase in tensile strength in this temperature range shown for two of the steels in Fig. 1.9b.

Under long-time loadings at elevated temperatures, the effects of creep must be considered. When a load is applied to a specimen at an elevated temperature, the specimen deforms rapidly at first but then continues to deform, or creep, at a much slower rate. A schematic creep curve for a steel subjected to a constant tensile load and at a constant elevated temperature is shown in Fig. 1.10. The initial elongation occurs almost instantaneously and is followed by three stages. In stage 1 elongation increases at a decreasing rate. In stage 2, elongation increases at a nearly constant rate. And in stage 3, elongation increases at an increasing rate. The failure, or creep-rupture, load is less than the load that would cause failure at that temperature in a short-time loading test.

Table 1.9 indicates typical creep and rupture data for a carbon steel, an HSLA steel, and a constructional alloy steel. The table gives the stress that will cause a given amount of creep in a given time at a particular temperature.

For special elevated-temperature applications in which structural steels do not provide adequate properties, special alloy and stainless steels with excellent high-temperature properties are available.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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