55 Welded Studs

Fasteners with one end welded to a steel member frequently are used for connecting material. Shear connectors in composite construction are a common application. Welded studs also

Black Bolt Civil Engg
FIGURE 5.2 A307 Grade A carbon-steel bolts; heads are also marked to identify the manufacturer or distributor. (a) With hexagonal nut and bolt. (b) With square head and nut. (c) With countersunk head.

are used as anchors to attach wood, masonry, or concrete to steel. Types of studs and welding guns vary with manufacturers.

Table 5.3 lists approximate allowable loads for Allowable Stress Design for several sizes of threaded studs. Check manufacturer's data for studs to be used. Chemical composition and physical properties may differ from those assumed for this table.

Use of threaded studs for steel-to-steel connections can cut costs. For example, fastening rail clips to crane girders with studs eliminates drilling of the top flange of the girders and may permit a reduction in flange size. In designs with threaded studs, clearance must be provided for stud welds. Usual sizes of these welds are indicated in Fig. 5.3 and Table 5.4. The dimension C given is the minimum required to prevent burn-through in stud welding. Other design considerations may require greater thicknesses.

TABLE 5.3 Allowable Loads (kips) on Threaded Welded Studs

(ASTM A108, grade 1015, 1018, or 1020)

TABLE 5.3 Allowable Loads (kips) on Threaded Welded Studs

(ASTM A108, grade 1015, 1018, or 1020)

Stud size, in

Tension

Single shear

5/s

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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