522 Weld Quality

A basic requirement of all welds is thorough fusion of weld and base metal and of successive layers of weld metal. In addition, welds should not be handicapped by craters, undercutting, overlap, porosity, or cracks. (AWS D1.1 and D1.5 give acceptable tolerances for these defects.) If craters, excessive concavity, or undersized welds occur in the effective length of a weld, they should be cleaned and filled to the full cross section of the weld. Generally, all undercutting (removal of base metal at the toe of a weld) should be repaired by depositing weld metal to restore the original surface. Overlap (a rolling over of the weld surface with lack of fusion at an edge), which may cause stress concentrations, and excessive convexity should be reduced by grinding away of excess material (see Figs. 5.19 and 5.20). If excessive

FIGURE 5.19 Profiles of fillet welds.
Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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