340 Influence Lines

In studies of the variation of the effects of a moving load, such as a reaction, shear, bending moment, or stress, at a given point in a structure, use of diagrams called influence lines is helpful. An influence line is a diagram showing the variation of an effect as a unit load moves over a structure.

An influence line is constructed by plotting the position of the unit load as the abscissa and as the ordinate at that position, to some scale, the value of the effect being studied. For example, Fig. 3.83a shows the influence line for reaction A in simple-beam AB. The sloping line indicates that when the unit load is at A, the reaction at A is 1.0. When the load is at B, the reaction at A is zero. When the unit load is at midspan, the reaction at A is 0.5. In general, when the load moves from B toward A, the reaction at A increases linearly: RA = (L - x)/L, where x is the distance from A to the position of the unit load.

Figure 3.83b shows the influence line for shear at the quarter point C. The sloping lines indicate that when the unit load is at support A or B, the shear at C is zero. When the unit load is a small distance to the left of C, the shear at C is -0.25; when the unit load is a small distance to the right of C, the shear at C is 0.75. The influence line for shear is linear on each side of C.

Figure 3.83c and d show the influence lines for bending moment at midspan and quarter point, respectively. Figures 3.84 and 3.85 give influence lines for a cantilever and a simple beam with an overhang.

Influence lines can be used to calculate reactions, shears, bending moments, and other effects due to fixed and moving loads. For example, Fig. 3.86a shows a simply supported beam of 60-ft span subjected to a dead load w = 1.0 kip per ft and a live load consisting of three concentrated loads. The reaction at A due to the dead load equals the product of the area under the influence line for the reaction at A (Fig. 3.86b) and the uniform load w. The maximum reaction at A due to the live loads may be obtained by placing the concentrated loads as shown in Fig. 3.86b and equals the sum of the products of each concentrated load and the ordinate of the influence line at the location of the load. The sum of the dead-load reaction and the maximum live-load reaction therefore is

FIGURE 3.83 Influence diagrams for a simple FIGURE 3.84 Influence diagrams for a cantilever. beam.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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