111 Effect Of Strain Rate On Tensile Properties

Tensile properties of structural steels are usually determined at relatively slow strain rates to obtain information appropriate for designing structures subjected to static loads. In the design of structures subjected to high loading rates, such as those caused by impact loads, however, it may be necessary to consider the variation in tensile properties with strain rate.

Figure 1.8 shows the results of rapid tension tests conducted on a carbon steel, two HSLA steels, and a constructional alloy steel. The tests were conducted at three strain rates and at three temperatures to evaluate the interrelated effect of these variables on the strength of the steels. The values shown for the slowest and the intermediate strain rates on the room-temperature curves reflect the usual room-temperature yield stress and tensile strength, respectively. (In determination of yield stress, ASTM E8 allows a maximum strain rate of V^ in per in per mm, or 1.04 X 10-3 in per in per sec. In determination of tensile strength, E8 allows a maximum strain rate of 0.5 in per in per mm, or 8.33 X 10-3 in per in per sec.)

The curves in Fig. 1.8a and b show that the tensile strength and 0.2% offset yield strength of all the steels increase as the strain rate increases at -50°F and at room temperature. The greater increase in tensile strength is about 15%, for A514 steel, whereas the greatest increase in yield strength is about 48%, for A515 carbon steel. However, Fig. 1.8c shows that at 600°F, increasing the strain rate has a relatively small influence on the yield strength. But a faster strain rate causes a slight decrease in the tensile strength of most of the steels.

FIGURE 1.8 Effects of strain rate on yield and tensile strengths of structural steels at low, normal, and elevated temperatures. (From R. L. Brockenbrough and B. G. Johnston, USS Steel Design Manual, R. L. Brockenbrough & Associates, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa., with permission.)

Ductility of structural steels, as measured by elongation or reduction of area, tends to decrease with strain rate. Other tests have shown that modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio do not vary significantly with strain rate.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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