NOTE: For intermediate values, the higher value or straight-line interpolation shall be used to determine the value of Ca. a Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analyses shall be performed.

b Site specific studies required per Section (ASCE 7-95) may result in higher values of Aa than included on the hazard maps, as may the provisions of Section 9.2.6 (ASCE 7-95).

Source: From Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. (ASCE 7-95), American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va., with permission.

FIGURE 6.3 Contour map of the United States showing effective peak velocity-related acceleration, AV. (Source: From Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-95, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va., with permission.)

where wx and wt = height from the base to level x or i k = 1 for building having period of 0.5 sec. or less = 2 for building having period of 2.5 sec. or more = use linear interpolation for building periods between 0.5 and 2.5 sec.

For horizontal shear distribution, the seismic design story shear in any story, Vx, is determined by the following

where Fi = the portion of the seismic base shear induced at level i. The seismic design story shear is to be distributed to the various elements of the force-resisting system in a story based on the relative lateral stiffness of the vertical resisting elements and the diaphragm.

Provision also should be made in design of structural framing for horizontal torsion, overturning effects, and the building drift.

(Federal Emergency Management Agency, NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings, FEMA, 1997, Washington, D.C.)

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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