Space Frame Structures

Tien T. Lan

Institute of Building Structures, Chinese Academy of Building Research, Beijing, China

24.1 Introduction to Space Frame Structures 24-1

General Introduction • Definition of Space Frame • Basic Concepts • Advantages of Space Frames • Preliminary Planning Guidelines

24.2 Double-Layer Grids 24-5

Types and Geometry • Type Choosing • Method of Support • Design Parameters • Cambering and Slope • Methods of Erection

24.3 Latticed Shells 24-15

Form and Layer • Braced Barrel Vaults • Braced Domes • Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells • Intersection and Combination

24.4 Structural Analysis 24-22

Design Loads • Static Analysis • Earthquake Resistance • Stability

24.5 Jointing Systems 24-35

General Description • Proprietary System • Bearing Joints

Glossary 24-48

References 24-48

Further Reading 24-49

24.1 Introduction to Space Frame Structures 24.1.1 General Introduction

A growing interest in space frame structures has been witnessed worldwide over the last half-century. The search for new structural forms to accommodate large unobstructed areas has always been the main objective of architects and engineers. With the advent of new building techniques and construction materials, space frames frequently provide the right answer and satisfy the requirements for lightness, economy, and speedy construction. Significant progress has been made in the process of development of space frame. A large amount of theoretical and experimental research programs were carried out by many universities and research institutions in various countries. As a result, a great deal of useful information has been disseminated, and fruitful results have been put into practice.

In the past few decades, the proliferation of space frame was mainly due to its great structural potential and visual beauty. New and imaginative applications of space frames are being demonstrated in the total range of building types, such as sports arenas, exhibition pavilions, assembly halls, transportation terminals, airplane hangars, workshops, and warehouses. They have been used not only on long-span roofs, but also on mid- and short-span enclosures as roofs, floors, exterior walls, and canopies. Many

interesting projects have been designed and constructed all over the world using a variety of configurations.

Some important factors that influence the rapid development of space frame can be cited as follows. First of all, the search for large indoor space has always been the focus of human activities. Consequently, sports tournaments, cultural performances, mass assemblies, and exhibitions can be held under one roof. The modern production and the needs of greater operational efficiency also created demand for large space with minimum interference from internal supports. Space frame provides the benefit that the interior space can be used in a variety of ways and thus is ideally suited for such requirements.

Space frames are highly statically indeterminate, and their analysis leads to extremely tedious computation if done by hand. The difficulty of the complicated analysis of such a system has contributed to its limited use. The introduction of the electronic computer has radically changed the whole approach to the analysis of space frames. By using computer programs, it is possible to analyze very complex space structures with great accuracy and less time involved.

Last, the space frame has also the problem of connecting a large number of members (sometimes up to 20) in space through different angles at a single point. The emergence of several connecting methods of proprietary systems has made great improvement in the construction of space frame, which offers simple and efficient means for making connection of members. The exact tolerances required by these jointing systems can be achieved in the fabrication of the members and joints.

0 0

Post a comment