Members

Lian Duan

Division of Engineering Services, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA

Wai-Fah Chen

College of Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI

31.1 Introduction 31-2

31.2 Basic Concept 31-2

31.3 Individual Columns 31-3

31.4 Framed Columns — Alignment Chart Method 31-3

Alignment Chart Method • Requirements for Braced Frames • Simplified Equations to Alignment Charts

31.5 Modifications to Alignment Charts 31-11

Different Restraining Girder End Conditions • Different Restraining Column End Conditions • Columns Restrained by Tapered Rectangular Girders • Unsymmetrical Frames • Effects of Axial Forces in Restraining Members • Consideration of Partial Column Base Fixity • Inelastic K-factor

31.6 Framed Columns — Alternative Methods 31-25

LeMessurier Method • Lui Method • Essa Method • Cheong-Siat-Moy Method • Remarks

31.7 Unbraced Frames with Leaning Columns 31-29

Rigid Columns • Leaning Columns • Remarks

31.8 Crossing Bracing Systems 31-34

31.9 Latticed and Built-Up Members 31-35

Laced Columns • Columns with Battens • Laced-Battened Columns • Columns with Perforated Cover Plates • Built-Up Members with Bolted and Welded Connectors

31.10 Tapered Columns 31-42

31.11 Crane Columns 31-43

31.12 Columns in Gable Frames 31-47

31.13 Columns in Fire 31-48

31.14 Members in Space Frames 31-49

31.15 Truss-Type Highway Sign Support Structures 31-49

31.16 Precast Concrete Skeletal Frames 31-51

31.17 Steel Moment Frame 31-51

Second-Order Elastic Analysis • Direct Second-Order Analysis

31.18 Summary 31-52

Glossary 31-53

References 31-53

Further Reading 31-57

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