Lrfd

Proposed methods

Second-order effects

Column curve B1, B2 factors

Stability function

Geometric imperfection

Column curve

Explicit imperfection modeling method C = 1/500 for unbraced frame dc = Lc/1000 for braced frame Equivalent notional load method a = 0.002 for unbraced frame a = 0.004 for braced frame Further reduced tangent modulus method E = 0.85E

Stiffness degradation associated with residual stresses

Column curve

CRC tangent modulus

Stiffness degradation associated with flexure

Column curve Interaction equations

Parabolic degradation function

Connection nonlinearity

No procedure

Power model/rotational spring

LRFD designs. The wide range of case studies and comparisons should confirm the validity of this advanced method.

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