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2.10.4 Plane Strain

The state of plane strain occurs in members that are not free to expand in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the applied loads. Examples of some plane strain problems are retaining walls, dams, long cylinder, and tunnels, as shown in Figure 2.84. In these problems ez, gyz, and gzx will vanish and hence,

Sz = n(ffx + ) The constitutive relation for an isotropic material is written as

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