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where S1, S2 are stability functions, MA, MB are incremental end moments, P is the incremental axial force, 6A, 6B are incremental joint rotations, _ is the incremental axial displacement, A, I, L are area, moment of inertia, and length of beam-column element, respectively, and E is the modulus of elasticity.

In this formulation, all members are assumed to be adequately braced to prevent out-of-plane buckling and their cross-sections are compact to avoid local buckling.

5.2.1.2 Cross-Section Plastic Strength

Based on the AISC-LRFD bilinear interaction equations [1], the cross-section plastic strength may be expressed as Equation 5.2. These AISC-LRFD cross-section plastic strength curves may be adopted for both strong-axis and weak-axis bendings (Figure 5.3):

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