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Since k2L cannot be zero, we must have k2L sin kL = 0

sin kL 0

kL = np, n = 1,2,3, ... The lowest buckling load corresponds to the first mode obtained by setting n = 1

p2 EI

2.12.2.3 Column with Fixed Ends

The four boundary conditions for a fixed end column are (Figure 2.114b)

0 0

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