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Notes:

1. Top- and seat-angle connections need lines 1 and 2 for input data, and top and seat angles with web-angle connections need line 1, 2, and 3.

2. All input data are in free format.

3. Top- and seat-angle sizes are assumed to be the same.

4. Bolt sizes of top angle, seat angle, and web angle are assumed to be the same.

Notes:

1. Top- and seat-angle connections need lines 1 and 2 for input data, and top and seat angles with web-angle connections need line 1, 2, and 3.

2. All input data are in free format.

3. Top- and seat-angle sizes are assumed to be the same.

4. Bolt sizes of top angle, seat angle, and web angle are assumed to be the same.

5.2.2.3 Load-Displacement Relationship Accounting for Semirigid Connection

The connection may be modeled as a rotational spring in the moment-rotation relationship represented by Equation 5.10. Figure 5.9 shows a beam-column element with semirigid connections at both ends. If the effect of connection flexibility is incorporated into the member stiffness, the incremental element force-displacement relationship of Equation 5.1 is modified as [18,19]

"mA"

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