The terms in the first column consist of the element forces q1 through q4 that result from displacement d1 = 1 when d2 = d3 = d4 = 0. This means that a unit vertical displacement is imposed at the left end of the member while translation at the right end and rotation at both ends are prevented as shown in Figure 2.73. The four member forces corresponding to this deformation can be obtained using the moment area method.

(a) Axially loaded element

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