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Moment-curvature relationship is given by

where E is the modulus of elasticity. We know that {s| = [E]{e|, so we have for the beam element

The stiffness matrix can now be obtained from Equation 2.171a written in the form

[K] = i [B]T[d][B] dx Jo with the integration over the length of the beam. Substituting for [B] and [E], we obtain symmetrical

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