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cm

Ci bj

Cj

bj

cm

bi, c,, etc., are constants related to the nodal coordinates only. The strains inside the element must all be constant and hence the name of the element.

For derivation of the strain matrix, only isotropic material is considered. The plane stress and plane strain cases can be combined to give the following elasticity matrix, which relates the stresses to the strains:

C1 Ci C2 0
0 0

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