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FIGURE 31.24 Effective length factor for tapered columns in braced frames (Galambos 1988).

Effects of shear deformation on the effective length factors of tapered I-section columns in a portal frame Figure 31.26 were studied by Li and Li (2000).

When Ac > 3^0.02n + 26, shear effect can be ignored. The following shear factor was proposed to account for the tapered columns (Li and Li 2000):

av = 1.0 + /1(n)e-<1c-17.75)/4 + /2(n)e-<1c-17.75)/22 ( 31.120)

f1(n) = 0.029031 + 0.0088n - 0.0003416n2 + 0.000004155n3 (31.121)

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