## Glossary

ASD — Allowable stress design.

LRFD — Load and resistance factor design.

Beam-to-column connection — A connection that connects a beam to a column. Braced frame — A frame to which lateral translation is prevented by a system of bracing. Connection rotation capacity — The angular rotation that a connection can undergo prior to local failure.

Effective-length factor — The ratio between the effective length and the unbraced length of a member. End-fixity factor — The factor that defines the rotational stiffness of an end-connection relative to that of the attached member.

First-order elastic analysis — Structural analysis based on linear elastic deformation, in which equilibrium conditions are formulated with respect to the undeformed structure. M-9 relationship — The relationship between moment and rotation of a connection. P-1 effect — Secondary effect of axial loads and lateral deflection on the moments in members. Rigid frame — A structure in which connections maintain the angular relationship between beam and column members under load.

Second-order elastic analysis — Structural analysis based on second-order elastic deformation, in which equilibrium conditions are formulated with respect to the deformed structure. Unbraced frame — A frame in which the lateral deflection is not prevented by a system of bracing.

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