Table 2.5 gives the expressions for the fixed-end moments of five commonly encountered cases of transverse loading. Readers are referred to Chen and Lui (1987, 1991) for more details. Member with Tensile Axial Force

For members subjected to tensile force, Equations 2.308 and 2.309 can be used provided that the stability functions are redefined as

(kL) cosh kL — kL sinh kL s" _ s" ~ 2 — 2 cosh kL + kL sinh kL

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