## 77Modeling of Reinforced Concrete for Structural Analysis

After a basic structural system is configured, member sizes selected, and loads determined, the structure is analyzed to obtain internal force demands. For simple structures, analysis by hand calculations or approximate methods would suffice (see Section 7.8); otherwise, structural analysis software may be used. For most reinforced concrete structures, a linear elastic analysis, assuming the gross moment of inertia of cross-sections and neglecting the steel reinforcement area, will provide results of sufficient accuracy for design purposes. The final design will generally be conservative even though the analysis does not reflect the actual nonlinear structural behavior because member design is based on ultimate strength design and the ductility of reinforced concrete enables force redistributions (see Sections 7.9 and 7.11). Refined modeling using nonlinear analysis is generally not necessary unless it is a special type of structure under severe loading situations like high seismic forces.

For structural modeling, the concrete modulus Ec given in Table 7.2 can be used for input. When the ends of beam and column members are cast together, the rigid end zone modeling option should be selected since its influence is often significant. Reinforced concrete floor systems should be modeled as rigid diaphragms by master slaving the nodes on a common floor. Tall walls or cores can be modeled as column elements. Squat walls should be modeled as plate or shear wall elements. If foundation conditions and soil conditions are exceptional, then the foundation system will need more refined modeling. Otherwise, the structural model can be assumed to be fixed to the ground. For large reinforced concrete systems or when geometrical control is important, the effects of creep and shrinkage and construction staging should be incorporated in the analysis.

If slender columns are present in the structure, a second-order analysis should be carried out that takes into account cracking by using reduced or effective cross-sectional properties (see Table 7.3 and Section 7.14). If a refined model and nonlinear analysis is called for, then the moment curvature analysis results will be needed for input into the computer analysis (see Section 7.10).

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