75Design Criteria

In achieving the design objectives, there are four general design criteria of SAFE that must be satisfied:

1. Safety, strength, and stability. Structural systems and member must be designed with sufficient margin of safety against failure.

2. Aesthetics. Aesthetics include such considerations as shape, geometrical proportions, symmetry, surface texture, and articulation. These are especially important for structures of high visibility such as signature buildings and bridges. The structural engineer must work in close coordination with planners, architects, other design professionals, and the affected community in guiding them on the structural and construction consequences of decisions derived from aesthetical considerations.

3. Functional requirements. A structure must always be designed to serve its intended function as specified by the project requirements. Constructability is a major part of the functional requirement. A structural design must be practical and economical to build.

4. Economy. Structures must be designed and built within the target budget of the project. For reinforced concrete structures, economical design is usually not achieved by minimizing the amount of concrete and reinforcement quantities. A large part of the construction cost are the costs of labor, formwork, and falsework. Therefore, designs that replicate member sizes and simplify reinforcement placement to result in easier and faster construction will usually result in being more economical than a design that achieves minimum material quantities.

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