(Max. Fy/Fu = 0.85)

To 4

Hot-rolled wide flange shapes for use in building frames

A summary of the specified minimum yield stresses Fy, the specified minimum tensile strengths Fu and general usages for some commonly used steels are given in Table 4.1.

4.1.3 High-Performance Steel

High-performance steel (HPS) is a name given to a group of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels that exhibit high strength, higher yield to tensile strength ratio, enhanced toughness, and improved weld-ability. Although research is still underway to develop and quantify the properties of a number of HPS, one HPS that is currently in use especially for bridge construction is HPS70W. HPS70W is a derivative of ASTM A709 Grade 70W steel (see Table 4.1). Compared to ASTM A709 Grade 70W, HPS70W has improved mechanical properties and is more resistant to postweld cracking even without preheating before welding.

4.1.4 Fireproofing of Steel

Although steel is an incombustible material, its strength (Fy, Fu) and stiffness (E) reduce quite noticeably at temperatures normally reached in fires when other materials in a building burn. Exposed steel members that may be subjected to high temperature in a fire should be fireproofed to conform to the fire ratings set forth in city codes. Fire ratings are expressed in units of time (usually hours) beyond which the structural members under a standard ASTM Specification (E119) fire test will fail under a specific set of criteria. Various approaches are available for fireproofing steel members. Steel members can be fireproofed by encasement in concrete if a minimum cover of 2 in. (5.1 mm) of concrete is provided. If the use of concrete is undesirable (because it adds weight to the structure), a lath and plaster (gypsum) ceiling placed underneath the structural members supporting the floor deck of an upper story can be used. In lieu of such a ceiling, spray-on materials, such as mineral fibers, perlite, vermiculite, gypsum, etc., can also be used for fireproofing. Other means of fireproofing include placing steel members away from the source of heat, circulating liquid coolant inside box or tubular members, and the use of insulative paints. These special paints foam and expand when heated, thus forming a shield for the members (Rains 1976). For a more detailed discussion of structural steel design for fire protection, refer to the latest edition of AISI publication No. FS3, Fire-Safe Structural Steel — A Design Guide. Additional information on fire-resistant standards and fire protection can be found in the AISI booklets on Fire Resistant Steel Frame Construction, Designing Fire Protection for Steel Columns, and Designing Fire Protection for Steel Trusses as well as in the Uniform Building Code.

4.1.5 Corrosion Protection of Steel

Atmospheric corrosion occurs when steel is exposed to a continuous supply of water and oxygen. The rate of corrosion can be reduced if a barrier is used to keep water and oxygen from contact with the surface of bare steel. Painting is a practical and cost-effective way to protect steel from corrosion. The Steel Structures Painting Council issues specifications for the surface preparation and the painting of steel structures for corrosion protection of steel. In lieu of painting, the use of other coating materials such as epoxies or other mineral and polymeric compounds can be considered. The use of corrosion resistance steels such as ASTM A242, A588 steel, or galvanized or stainless steel is another alternative. Corrosion resistant steels such as A588 retard corrosion by the formation of a layer of deep reddish-brown to black patina (an oxidized metallic film) on the steel surface after a few wetting-drying cycles, which usually take place within 1 to 3 years. Galvanized steel has a zinc coating. In addition to acting as a protective cover, zinc is anodic to steel. The steel, being cathodic, is therefore protected from corrosion. Stainless steel is more resistant to rusting and staining than ordinary steel primarily because of the presence of chromium as an alloying element.

4.1.6 Structural Steel Shapes

Steel sections used for construction are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. In general, there are three procedures by which steel shapes can be formed: hot rolled, cold formed, and welded. All steel shapes must be manufactured to meet ASTM standards. Commonly used steel shapes include the wide flange (W) sections, the American Standard beam (S) sections, bearing pile (HP) sections, American Standard channel (C) sections, angle (L) sections, tee (WT) sections, as well as bars, plates, pipes, and hollow structural sections (HSS). Sections that, by dimensions, cannot be classified as W or S shapes are designated as miscellaneous (M) sections and C sections that, by dimensions, cannot be classified as American Standard channels are designated as miscellaneous channel (MC) sections.

Hot-rolled shapes are classified in accordance with their tensile property into five size groups by the American Society of Steel Construction (AISC). The groupings are given in the AISC Manuals (1989,

2001). Groups 4 and 5 shapes and group 3 shapes with flange thickness exceeding l2 in. are generally used for application as compression members. When weldings are used, care must be exercised to minimize the possibility of cracking in regions at the vicinity of the welds by carefully reviewing the material specification and fabrication procedures of the pieces to be joined.

4.1.7 Structural Fasteners

Steel sections can be fastened together by rivets, bolts, and welds. While rivets were used quite extensively in the past, their use in modern steel construction has become almost obsolete. Bolts have essentially replaced rivets as the primary means to connect nonwelded structural components.

Four basic types of bolts are commonly in use. They are designated by ASTM as A307, A325, A490, and A449 (ASTM 2001a-d). A307 bolts are called common, unfinished, machine, or rough. They are made from low-carbon steel. Two grades (A and B) are available. They are available in diameters from 1 to 4 in. (6.4 to 102 mm) in 1 in. (3.2 mm) increments. They are used primarily for low-stress connections and for secondary members. A325 and A490 bolts are called high-strength bolts. A325 bolts are made from a heat-treated medium-carbon steels. They are available in two types: Type 1 — bolts made of mediumcarbon steel. Type 3 — bolts having atmospheric corrosion resistance and weathering characteristics comparable to A242 and A588 steels. A490 bolts are made from quenched and tempered alloy steel and thus have higher strength than A325 bolts. Like A325 bolts, two types (Types 1 and 3) are available. Both A325 and A490 bolts are available in diameters from 2 to 1j in. (13 to 38 mm) in 8 in. (3.2 mm) increments. They are used for general construction purposes. A449 bolts are made from quenched and tempered steels. They are available in diameters from 4 to 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm). Because A449 bolts are not produced to the same quality requirements nor have the same heavy-hex head and nut dimensions as A325 or A490 bolts, they are not to be used for slip critical connections. A449 bolts are used primarily when diameters over 12 in. (38 mm) are needed. They are also used for anchor bolts and threaded rod.

High-strength bolts can be tightened to two conditions of tightness: snug tight and fully tight. The snug-tight condition can be attained by a few impacts of an impact wrench or the full effort of a worker using an ordinary spud wrench. The snug-tight condition must be clearly identified in the design drawing and is permitted in bearing-type connections where slip is permitted, or in tension or combined shear and tension applications where loosening or fatigue due to vibration or load fluctuations are not design considerations. Bolts used in slip-critical conditions (i.e., conditions for which the integrity of the connected parts is dependent on the frictional force developed between the interfaces of the joint) and in conditions where the bolts are subjected to direct tension are required to be tightened to develop a pretension force equal to about 70% of the minimum tensile stress Fu of the material from which the bolts are made. This can be accomplished by using the turn-of-the-nut method, the calibrated wrench method, or by the use of alternate design fasteners or direct tension indicator (RCSC 2000).

Welding is a very effective means to connect two or more pieces of materials together. The four most commonly used welding processes are shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and flux core arc welding (FCAW) (AWS 2000). Welding can be done with or without filler materials although most weldings used for construction utilize filler materials. The filler materials used in modern-day welding processes are electrodes. Table 4.2 summarizes the electrode designations used for the aforementioned four most commonly used welding processes. In general, the strength of the electrode used should equal or exceed the strength of the steel being welded (AWS 2000).

Steel Structures

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