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FIGURE 2.56 Influence line for bending moments — two-span beam.

FIGURE 2.57 Influence line for bending moment — three-span beam.

FIGURE 2.58 Influence line for bending moment — four-span beam.

A section D-D located a differential length below C-C will be displaced by an amount v +(0v/0y) dy. As sy varies with the applied load, from 0 to sy, the work done by the forces external to the element can be shown to be dV = s^A dy = 2 Sy eyA dy (2 .107)

where A is the area of cross-section of the bar and ey is the strain in the direction of ay.

FIGURE 2.59 Axially loaded bar.

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