48 Combined Bending Torsion and Axial Force

Members subjected to the combined effect of bending, torsion, and axial force should be designed to satisfy the following limit states:

Yielding under normal stress:

where f — 0.90, Fy is the specified minimum yield stress, and fun is the maximum normal stress determined from an elastic analysis under factored loads.

Yielding under shear stress:

where f = 0.90, Fy is the specified minimum yield stress, and fuv is the maximum shear stress determined from an elastic analysis under factored loads.

Buckling:

fcFcr > fun or f cFcr > fuv, whichever is applicable (4 . 84)

where f cFcr = f cPn/Ag, in which fcPn is the design compressive strength of the member (see Section 4.4), Ag is the gross cross-section area, and fun, fuv are normal and shear stresses as defined in Equations 4.82 and 4.83.

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