FIGURE 13.45 Flutter onset wind velocity of a truss-stiffened girder with/without stabilizer [36].

FIGURE 13.45 Flutter onset wind velocity of a truss-stiffened girder with/without stabilizer [36].

The ultimate countermeasure for suppressing aeroelastic vibration should be enabled by using not additive devices as deflector and fairing but only structural members. Figure 13.46 shows a bridge deck with two plate girders as one of the examples for trying to improve aeroelastic performance by only structural members [37]. In order to suppress the aeroelastic vibrations of the bridge girder with two plate girders, investigations were done to find how the locations of the plate girders under the deck influence the aeroelastic performance in both torsional and heaving vibration modes. Figure 13.47 shows the results of wind tunnel tests [37]. Referring to the experimental results, the inner location of the plate girder gives a better performance with regards to aeroelastic behavior. Before deciding on the structural details of a bridge, if the aeroelastic behavior is investigated, more economical and reasonable bridges can be realized without using additive devices. Cables

Transmission lines, cables for cable-stayed bridges, and hanger for suspension bridge induce vortex-excited vibration, rain-wind-induced vibration, and galloping by adhering ice and snow. In order to suppress the vortex-excited vibration, helical winding of wire has been used in towers with circular cross-sections.

For rain-wind-induced vibration, axial grooves and indent shapes have been applied on the surface of the cable for a long-span cable-stayed bridge as shown in Figure 13.6 and Figure 13.48 [2,6]. The axial grooves and indent shapes prevent water rivulets from moving freely on the cable surface to simply induce the aeroelastic vibration. A diagonal hanger of a suspension bridge is susceptible to inducing aeroelastic vibration, explained as the axial flow along the diagonal hanger inducing the vibration. Cable fin is proposed as the countermeasure to prevent the occurrence of axial flow.

It is very difficult to suppress the galloping caused by adhering ice and snow by means of adopting an adequate configuration, because the form by ice and snow is not determined.

13.3.3 Control of Aerodynamic Interference Caused by Multiple Structure

The aerodynamic interference is induced by multiple structure or by multiple structural members and the degree of the interference is different by the difference among the arrangements. An intense vibration is induced by the wake of the upstream structure, which is called as "wake galloping'' and "wake flutter.'' Bundle Cables

In the cable-stayed bridge of prestressed concrete, multicables are sometimes used at one anchorage point from an economical viewpoint. When two cables in a bundle cable are placed closely in tandem arrangement against the wind direction, wake galloping is induced in the downstream cable. In the wake galloping, the downstream cable is vibrated by the wake generated by the upstream cable [38].



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