where En, E22, and E33 denote the orthotropic moduli of elasticity measured in three orthogonal directions, Gi2, G23, and G13 denote the orthotropic shear moduli, and Vy denotes the Poisson's ratio obtained by dividing the negative value of the strain induced in the j direction by the strain produced in the i direction by a stress applied in the i direction.

For an isotropic material, the expanded form of Equation 1.35 is

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