322Types of Bracing

Bracing used in structural systems generally serve two primary functions. They resist secondary loads on structures (e.g., wind bracing) and increase the strength of individual members by resisting deformation in the weakest direction [1]. For the latter case, structural bracing forces higher modes of deformation by providing resistance to lateral and/or rotational displacement. This is achieved through axial, shear, and/ or flexural deformations of the bracing member. Diaphragms, for instance, provide restraint through their shear stiffness while diagonal cross-bracing relies on axial stiffness.

Bracing systems used to control instability fall into four general classifications: relative, nodal, continuous, or lean-on. Common configurations of each type are shown in Figure 32.1. Relative bracing

Comp flange

Cross

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