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FIGURE 4.24 Welds subjected to combined shear and flexure.

### 4.11.2.9 Welded Moment-Resisting Connections

Welded moment-resisting connections (Figure 4.26), like bolted moment-resisting connections, must be designed to carry both moment and shear. To simplify the design procedure, it is customary to assume that the moment, to be represented by a couple Ff as shown in Figure 4.19, is to be carried by the beam flanges and that the shear is to be carried by the beam web. The connected parts (the moment plates, welds, etc.) are then designed to resist the forces Ff and shear. Depending on the geometry of the welded connection, this may include checking: (a) the yield and fracture strength of the moment plate; (b) the shear and tensile capacity of the welds; and (c) the shear rupture strength of the shear plate.

If the column to which the connection is attached is weak, the designer should consider the use of column stiffeners to prevent failure of the column flange and web due to bending, yielding crippling, or buckling (see section on Design of moment-resisting connections).

Examples on the design of a variety of welded shear and moment-resisting connections can be found in the AISC Manual on Connections (AISC 1992) and the AISC-LRFD Manual (AISC 2001).

Stiffeners finished to bear

Stiffeners finished to bear

FIGURE 4.25 Welded shear connections: (a) framed beam connection; (b) seated beam connection; and (c) stiffened seated beam connection.

### 4.11.3 Shop Welded-Field Bolted Connections

A large percentage of connections used for construction are shop welded and field bolted types. These connections are usually more cost effective than fully welded connections and their strength and ductility characteristics often rival those of fully welded connections. Figure 4.27 shows some of these connections. The design of shop welded-field bolted connections is also covered in the AISC Manual on Connections and the AISC-LRFD Manual. In general, the following should be checked: (a) shear/tensile capacities of the bolts and/or welds; (b) bearing strength of the connected parts; (c) yield and/or fracture strength of the moment plate; and (d) shear rupture strength of the shear plate. Also, as for any other type of moment connections, column stiffeners shall be provided if any one of the following criteria — column flange bending, local web yielding, crippling and compression buckling of the column web — is violated.

### 4.11.4 Beam and Column Splices

Beam and column splices (Figure 4.28) are used to connect beam or column sections of different sizes. They are also used to connect beam or column of the same size if the design calls for extraordinary long span. Splices should be designed for both moment and shear unless it is the intention of the designer to utilize the splices as internal hinges. If splices are used for internal hinges, provisions must be made to ensure that the connections possess adequate ductility to allow for large hinge rotation.

Splice plates are designed according to their intended functions. Moment splices should be designed to resist the flange force Ff = M/(d — tf) (Figure 4.19) at the splice location. In particular, the following limit states need to be checked: yielding of gross area of the plate, fracture of net area of the plate (for bolted splices), bearing strengths of connected parts (for bolted splices), shear capacity of bolts (for bolted splices), and weld capacity (for welded splices). Shear splices should be designed to resist the shear forces acting at the locations of the splices. The limit states that are needed to be checked include: shear rupture of the splice plates, shear capacity of bolts under an eccentric load (for bolted splices), bearing capacity of the connected parts (for bolted splices), shear capacity of bolts (for bolted splices), weld capacity under an eccentric load (for welded splices). Design examples of beam and column splices can be found in the AISC Manual of Connections (AISC 1992) and the AISC-LRFD Manuals (AISC 2001).

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