where Tu is the tension force due to the factored load combination being considered, Me is the elastic lateral buckling moment of the member, and d is the member depth.

If Equation 10.15 is used for nonrectangular cross-sections, the variable d/6 should be replaced by the ratio of the strong axis section modulus to the gross cross-sectional area, Sx/A. When the member is being designed for combined bending and compression, the following equation must be satisfied for the design conditions being considered:

where Pu is the axial compressive force due to the factored load combination being considered; P0 is the adjusted resistance for axial compression parallel-to-grain acting alone for the axis of buckling providing the lower buckling strength; Mmx and Mmy are the factored moment resistances, including any magnification for second-order effects for strong and weak axis bending, respectively; and Mx and My are the adjusted moment resistances for the strong and weak axes, respectively, from multiplying the section properties by the nominal bending resistance and appropriate adjustment factors.

The moments Mmx and Mmy may be determined using second-order analysis for a simplified magnification method that is outlined in the design manual. The extent of the simplified method compels us to refer the reader to the design specification rather than including it here.

When resisting lateral loads such as seismic forces, most light-frame wood buildings can be conceptualized as a box system. Forces are transmitted horizontally through diaphragms (i.e., roofs and floors) to reactions that are provided by the shear walls at the ends of the diaphragms. These forces are in turn transmitted to the lower stories and finally to the foundations. Some designers consider shear walls as vertical diaphragms, since the reaction to loading is similar to half of a diaphragm. However, this chapter will consider shear walls as separate elements.

A diaphragm is a structural unit that acts as a deep beam or girder that may or may not be able to transfer torsional loads, depending on the relative stiffness of the diaphragm and supporting shear walls. The analogy to a girder is somewhat more appropriate because girders and diaphragms can be made as assemblies. The sheathing acts as a web that is assumed to resist all of the shear loads applied to the diaphragm, and the framing members at the boundaries of the diaphragm are considered to act as flanges to resist tension and compression forces due to moment. The sheathing is stiffened by intermediate framing members to provide support for gravity loading and to transfer the shear load from one sheathing element to the adjacent sheathing element. Chords act as flanges and often consist of the top plates of the walls, ledgers that attach the diaphragm to concrete or masonry walls, bond beams that are part of the masonry walls, or any other continuous element at the parameter of the diaphragm. The third element of a diaphragm is the struts. Struts provide the load transfer mechanism from the diaphragm to the shear walls at the ends of the diaphragm and act parallel to the loading of the diaphragm. Chords act to resist internal forces acting perpendicular to the general loading in the direction of the diaphragm.

The chord can serve several functions at the same time, providing resistance to loads and forces from different sources and functioning as the tension or compression flange of the diaphragm. It is important that the connection to the sheathing be designed to accomplish the shear transfer since most diaphragm chords consist of many pieces. It is important that splices be designed to transmit the tension or compression occurring at the location of the splice. It is also important to recognize that the direction of application of the seismic forces will reverse. Therefore, it should be recognized that chords need

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