## 1952 Performance Intent and Objectives

The NEHRP Provisions are intended to provide a tiered series of performance capabilities for structures, depending on their intended occupancy and use. Under the NEHRP Provisions, each structure must be assigned to a seismic use group (SUG). Three SUGs are defined and are respectively labeled I, II, and III:

• SUG-I encompasses most ordinary occupancy buildings including typical commercial, residential, and industrial structures. For these facilities the basic intent of the NEHRP Provisions, just as with earlier codes, is to provide a low probability of earthquake-induced life safety endangerment.

• SUG-II includes facilities that house large numbers of persons, persons who are mobility impaired, or large quantities of materials that if released could pose substantial hazards to the surrounding community. Examples of such facilities include large assembly facilities, housing several thousand persons, daycare centers, and manufacturing facilities containing large quantities of toxic or explosive materials. The performance intent for these facilities is to provide a lower probability of life endangerment, relative to SUG-I structures, and a low probability of damage that would result in release of stored materials.

• SUG-III includes those facilities such as hospitals and emergency operations and communications centers deemed essential to disaster response and recovery operations. The basic performance intent of the NEHRP Provisions with regard to these structures is to provide a low probability of earthquake-induced loss of functionality and operability.

In reality, the probability of damage resulting in life endangerment, release of hazardous materials, or loss of function should be calculated using structural reliability methods as the total probability of such damage over a period of time (Ravindra 1994). Mathematically, this is equal to the integral, over all possible levels of ground motion intensity, of the conditional probability of excessive damage given that a ground motion intensity is experienced and the probability that such ground motion intensity will be experienced in the desired period of time. Although such an approach would be mathematically and conceptually correct, it is currently regarded as too complex for practical application in the design office.

Instead, the NEHRP Provisions design for desired limiting levels of nonlinear behavior for a single design earthquake intensity level, termed maximum considered earthquake (MCE) ground shaking. In most regions of the United States, the MCE is defined as that intensity of ground shaking having a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. In certain regions, proximate to major active faults, this probabilistic definition of MCE motion is limited by a conservative deterministic estimate of the ground motion intensity anticipated to result from an earthquake of characteristic magnitude on these faults. The MCE is thought to represent the most severe level of shaking ever likely to be experienced by a structure, though it is recognized that there is some limited possibility of more severe motion occurring.

Structures categorized as SUG-I are designed with the expectation that MCE shaking would result in severe damage to both structural and nonstructural elements, with damage perhaps being so severe that following the earthquake the structure would be on the verge of collapse. This damage state has come to be termed collapse prevention, because the structure is thought to be at a state of incipient but not actual collapse. Theoretically, SUG-I structures behaving in this manner would be total or near total financial losses, in the event that MCE shaking was experienced. To the extent that shaking experienced by the structure exceeds the MCE level, the structure could actually experience partial or total collapse.

SUG-III structures are designed with the intent that when subjected to MCE shaking they would experience both structural and nonstructural damages; however, the structures would retain significant residual structural resistance or margin against collapse. It is anticipated that when experiencing MCE shaking such structures may be damaged to an extent that they would no longer be suitable for occupancy, until repair work had been instituted, but that repair would be technically and economically feasible. This superior performance relative to SUG-I structures is accomplished through specification that SUG-III structures be designed with 50% greater strength and more stiffness than their SUG-I counterparts. SUG-II structures are designed for performance intermediate to that for SUG-I and SUG-III with strengths and stiffness that are 25% greater than those required for SUG-I structures.

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