1524 Chemical Admixtures Superplasticizer

Chemical admixtures are important and necessary components for the preparation of HPC. The concrete properties, both in fresh and hardened states, can be significantly modified or improved by chemical admixtures. In some countries, 70 to 80% of concrete contains one or more admixtures (88% in Canada, 85% in Australia, and 71% in the United States). It is thus important for civil engineers to be familiar with commonly used admixtures. Presently, many types of chemical admixtures are being used in HPC. The following will only discuss the most commonly used chemical admixture — superplasticizer.

FIGURE 15.5 Metakaoline particles.

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