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FIGURE 31.17 Effective length factor of compression diagonal (Picard and Beaulieu 1987).

Sabelli and Hohbach (1999) studied the relationship between axial load and end rotational stiffness for cross-braced frames. For in-plane buckling, the lower bound values of K-factor equal 0.422 for pinned-end and 0.245 for fixed-end; the upper bound values of K-factor equal 0.4 for pinned-end and 0.272 for fixed-end. For out-of-plan buckling, the lower bound values of K-factor equal 0.5 for pinned-end and 0.35 for fixed-end.

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