FIGURE 17.5 MMI maps, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge Earthquake (courtesy Dewey et al. 1995).

ground displacement (PGD) are the maximum respective amplitudes of velocity and displacement. Acceleration is normally recorded, with velocity and displacement being determined by integration; however, actual velocity and displacement meters are also deployed, to a lesser extent. Acceleration can be expressed in units of cm/s2 (termed gals), but is often also expressed in terms of the fraction or e

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