11

4FesFezH

where

Fes = Fex if the x-axis is the axis of symmetry of the cross-section, or Fes = Fey if the y-axis is the axis of symmetry of the cross-section

Fey = p2E/ (Kl/ r)2 H = 1 - (xo2 + yl)lrl in which Kx, Ky are the effective length factors for buckling about the x and y axes, respectively, l is the unbraced member length in the plane of buckling, rx, ry are the radii of gyration about the x and y axes, respectively, xo, yo are shear center coordinates with respect to the centroid (Figure 4.7), and ro2 = xo+yo + rl + ri;.

TABLE 4.5 Approximate Equations for C„ and J

Structural shape

Warping constant, Cw

Torsional constant, J

0 0

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