The total, lateral base shear force given by Equations 19.7-19.9 must be distributed vertically for application to the various mass or diaphragm levels of the structure. For a structure with n levels, the force at diaphragm level x is given by the equation

where wxhx

hx and hi, respectively, are the heights of levels x and i above the structure's base. These formula are based on the assumption that the structure is responding in its first mode, in pure sinusoidal motion, and that the mode shape is linear. That is, it is assumed that at any instant of time, the displacement at level x of the structure is h dx = ~r~ dn (19.12)

hn where dx and dn are the lateral displacements at level x and the roof of the structure, respectively, and hn is the total height of the structure. For a structure responding in pure sinusoidal motion, the displacement dx, velocity vx, and acceleration ax, of level x at any instant of time, t, is given by the following equations:

2p j 2p

Since acceleration at level x is directly proportional to the displacement at level x, the acceleration at level x in a structure responding in pure sinusoidal motion is given by the equation hn ax = jnan (19.16)

hx lx where an is the acceleration at the roof level. Since the inertial force at level x is equal to the product of mass at level x and the acceleration at level x, Equation 19.11 can be seen to be an accurate distribution of lateral inertial forces in a structure responding in a linear mode shape.

The lateral forces given by Equation 19.10 are applied to a structural model of the building and the resulting member forces and building interstory drifts are determined. The analysis must consider the relative rigidity of both the horizontal and vertical elements of the LFRS, and when torsional effects are significant, must consider three-dimensional distributions of stiffness, centers of mass, and rigidity. The structure must then satisfy two basic criteria. First, the elements of the LFRS must have sufficient strength to resist the calculated member forces in combination with other loads, and second, the structure must have sufficient strength to maintain computed interstory drifts within acceptable levels. The specific load combinations that must be used to evaluate member strength and the permissible interstory drifts are described in succeeding sections.

In recognition of the fact that higher mode participation can result in significantly larger forces at individual diaphragm levels, than is predicted by Equation 19.11, forces on diaphragms are computed using an alternative equation, as follows:

where Fpx is the design force applied to diaphragm level x, Ft is the force computed from Equation 19.11 at level i, Wpx is the effective seismic weight, at level x, and Wi is the effective weight at level i. Response Spectrum Analysis

Response spectrum analysis is permitted to be used for the design of any structure. The procedure contained in the NEHRP Provisions uses standard methods of elastic modal dynamic analysis, which are not described here, but are well documented in the literature, for example, by Chopra (1981). The analysis must include sufficient modes of vibration to capture participation of at least 90% of the structure's mass in each of the two orthogonal directions. The response spectrum used to characterize the loading on the structure may be either the generalized design spectrum for the site, shown in Figure 19.11, or a site-specific spectrum developed considering the regional seismic sources and site characteristics.

Regardless of the spectrum used, the ground motion is scaled by the factor (I/R), just as in the ELF technique. The NEHRP Provisions require that the member forces determined by response spectrum analysis be scaled so that the total applied lateral force in any direction be not less than 80% of the base shear calculated using the ELF method for regular structures nor 100% for irregular structures. This scaling requirement was introduced to ensure that assumptions used in building the analytical model does not result in excessively flexible representation of the structure and, consequently, an underestimate of the required strength. Response History Analysis

Response history analysis is also permitted to be used for the design of any structure but, due to the added complexity, is seldom employed in practice except for special structures incorporating special base isolation or energy dissipation technologies. Either linear or nonlinear response history analysis is permitted to be used. When response history analysis is performed, input ground motion must consist of a suite of at least three pairs of orthogonal horizontal ground motion components, obtained from records of similar magnitude, source, distance, and site characteristics as the event controlling the hazard for the building's site. Each pair of orthogonal records must be scaled such that with a period range approximating the fundamental period of response of the structure, the square root of the sum of the squares of the orthogonal component ordinates envelopes 140% of the design response spectrum. Simple amplitude, rather than frequency domain scaling, is recommended. Actual records are preferred, though simulations may be used if a sufficient number of actual records representative of the design earthquake motion are not available. If a suite of less than seven records is used as input ground motion, the maximum of the response parameters (element forces and deformations) obtained from any of the records is used for design. If seven or more records are used, the mean values of the response parameters obtained from the suite of records may be used as design values. This requirement was introduced with the understanding that the individual characteristics of a ground motion record can produce significantly different results for some response quantities. It was hoped that this provision would encourage engineers to use larger suites of records and obtain an understanding of the variability associated with possible structural response.

When linear response history analyses are performed, the ground motion records, scaled as previously described, are further scaled by the quantity (I/R). The resulting member forces are combined with other loads, just as they would be if the ELF or response spectrum methods of analysis were performed.

When nonlinear response history analyses are performed, they must be used without further scaling. Rather than evaluating the strength of members using the standard load combinations considered with other analysis techniques, the engineer is required to demonstrate acceptable performance capability of the structure, given the predicted strength and deformation demands. The intention is that laboratory and other relevant data be used to demonstrate adequate behavior. This is a rudimentary introduction of performance-based design concepts, which will likely have significantly greater influence in future building codes.

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