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where C and T represent the compression and tension forces obtained from an elastic analysis, respectively.

2. When the double diagonals are continuous and attached at the intersection point, the effective length of the compression diagonal is 0.5 times the diagonal length, that is, K = 0.5, because the C/T ratio is usually smaller than 1.6.

EL-Tayem and Goel (1986) reported a theoretical and experimental study about the X-bracing system made from single equal-leg angles. They concluded that

1. Design of X-bracing system should be based on an exclusive consideration of one halfdiagonal only.

2. For X-bracing systems made from single equal-leg angles, an effective length of 0.85 times the half-diagonal length is reasonable, that is, K = 0.425.

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