Introduce

Between 1958 and 1970, much valuable work on Stirling engines was carried out in tlie United States by the General Motors Corporation (Percival 1974). Interest at General Motors was stimulated in 1948 by the publication of the three classic papers about the early Philips work (Rinia and du Pre 1946, de Brcy, Rinia and van Weenan 1947, and van Weenan 1947). General Motors proposed a working agreement with Philips but the idea was rejected as premature. Later, in 1957. Philips considered their...

Mm s h mm M hb h k bss bss

Transposing the line Tl-H' onto a new diagram, Fig. 9.5, the only correction now left to make is to include some allowance for the power consumed by the engine auxiliary equipment. This may comprise a lubricating-oil pump, an electric alternator, or generator for battery charging, lighting and control functions, a fluid compressor, cooling water pump, radiator fan, air preheater drive and miscellaneous other devices. The power consumption of the auxiliaries is most likely to increase as the...

1

United Stirling PI50, V8 Stirling engine installation in 13-ton medium-duty truck (alter Hatlarc and Roscnqvist 1977). installation had a weight advantage of 40 kg (88.2 lb) compared with the dicscl installation. The higher initial cost of the Stirling engine was offset by the lower operating cost so that a pay-back period of 0.5 to 5 years will be achieved depending on utilization in the range 16 000 lo 1(10 000 km year (9942 to 62 137 miles year). The economic analysis depends on...

Introduction

Between 1958 and 1970, much valuable work on Stirling engines was carried out in the United States by the General Motors Corporation (Percival 1974). Interest at General Motors was stimulated in 1948 by the publication of the three classic papers about the early Philips work (Rinia and du Pre 1946. de Brey, Rinia and van Weenan 1947. and van Weenan 1947). General Motors proposed a working agreement with Philips but the idea was rejected as premature. Later, in 1957, Philips considered their...

308

Tables indicates that the Stirling engine with thermal storage has very advantageous characteristics for application to vehicles. It is possible to drive a city bus. taxi, delivery truck, or passenger car around all day, without any noise, without using liquid fossil fuel and without exhaust emissions from the vehicle. Moreover, as Mcijer (1970a) pointed out. the system permits the interior of the vehicle to be heated by engine waste heat. In vehicles with electric propulsion, interior heating...

100 J

Characteristic temperature regime in a fossil-fuelled, water-cooled Stirling engine. A Temperature of combustion pioducis, H Temperature of heater walls, C Mean temperature in expansion space, D Mean temperature in compression space, li 'I' tnttoniinri if ru llim miil.T -im.I , lor might be. considered representative of the temperature range established in a fossil-fuelled water-cooled regenerative engine. The temperatures of the combustion products and cooling water are 28011 K...

1960

R Net values after combustion blower and water pump power have been deducted. r Net values after combustion blower and water pump power have been deducted. were also included. Further data in this area was presented at the G.M. Symposium on Emissions (1972). Papers about swash-plate mechanisms highly relevant to compact Stirling engines were presented by Maki and DeHart (1971), and by Hays and Maki (19711.

1980

Fig. 22.1 Growth of interest in Stirling engines (alter Martini 1978a). 5. MAN MWM. A recent paper reviewing development of Stirling engines in West Germany was given by Zacliarias (1974). 6. General Motors engines. Percival (1974) has provided a historical survey of the General Motors program from I960 to 1970. It contains a wealth of data and information and is one of the most important survey documents in the open literature. 7. Ford Philips engines. Progress reports in this program are...

Info

Fig. 9.1 Power output and thermal efficiency of Stirling engines as a function of engine speed or pressure level. F fleets of dead volume, harmonic motion, and adiahatic compression and expansion on the ideal cycle the ideal Stirling engine there must he some void volume in the regenerator and other heat exchangers. Including this dead volume reduces the amplitude of the pressure excursion when the working fluid is moved from the cold to the hot space and results in a reduction in the power...

15 Psia

Schematic diagram of McDonoel-Douglas nuclear-isotope or electric-heating Stirling engine and hydraulic blood pump (after Johnston e al. 19751. connection between the displacer cylinder and the converter. In Ibis engine the 'piston' consisted of a flexing metal diaphragm with helium gas on one side and hydraulic fluid (a petroleum base fluid) on the other. The regenerator was the annular gap between the displacer and the cylinder wall. Motion of the displacer in the cylinder caused...

Xj

Rulon seal and guide, rings combustion engine practice. Two thin rings of rectangular cross section about 0.24cm (i in) to 0.32cm ( in) thick will be found more effective than a single thick ring. The rings should be a 'sloppy* fit in the piston ring grooves and .should be supported or backed by some kind of metal spring ring lightly pushing the ring radially outwards. The ring should be split by a radial slit cut into the ring when mounted on a mandrel. Neither I he ring not the...

Yl

7(1 -c)(t l)+r(y- I )ln(< wc ) The thermal ediciency for T, is given by (y - I ) t(1 + IniarJo) - ( 4- < r -1n rj4- IJ _ (y )W+ niarJt> ) - a + < T + nrey I IJ X y(I -i)(r-l) + r(y-l)ln(are p) Tlie cfTcctivc work output per cyclc may be represented by the indicated mean effective pressure, defined by p , W strokc volume R7*, t I - n urJf)) -( 4cr4ln rc)+ IJ rc T 1 4 n(arjp) (a 4 tr 4 In rc)4 1J or in dimensionless form with respect to the pressure at state 1 as ftJPi rjr I 4In(arjp) -...

9 Operating Characteristics Of

Ideal maximum power and efficiency 203 Heal exchanger temperature potential 207 Operating characteristics of real engines 209 Heater and cooler temperatures 212 Emission characteristics of Stirling engines 216 Free-piston Stirling engines 233 ID CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR STIRLING Temperature control systems 236 CorLsfmrf speed system (Philips) 239 Variable speed system (Philips) 241 Variable speed system (United Stirling) 243 Pressure-amplitude variation 246 II FREE-PISTON STIRLING ENGINES 254...

6 Mechanical Arrangements

Tun. elements of a Stirling engine include two spaces at different temperatures having volumes lhat can he varied cyclically and which arc connected through a regenerative heal exchanger and auxiliary heat exchangers. These simple elements can be combined in a surprisingly wide range of mechanical arrangements. Some have been identified (Finkelstein 1.959) by the name of the inventor or original user. Many variations were used in the nineteenth century and have been adopted or re-invented for...

Hut

Power modulation by damping or spring. Fig. 11.18. Power modulation by damping or spring. In any circumstance, properly designed free-piston engines are extremely easy to start by a small applied vibration. Alternator engines may be started by a slight amount of power fed through the electric circuit. Solar engines mounted on a sun-tracking mount will self-start as a result of the. changing inclination to the gravity, field, but in order In do so the piston must be suspended above...

Indirect Heating

All the above was concerned with directly heated tubes or fins in contact with the combustion products or receiving direct radiant energy from a solar concentration or isotope emitter. Substantial advantages accrue from the use of an intermediate liquid metal heat-transfer loop. Usually the medium is a sodium potassium (Na K) eutectic mixture or a condensing sodium vapour. The advantage of IKino limiiit nii'lfll nrlir r< t li.> olinn ic iVi t K.- < -' . > f

Costs And Applications

No specific data on the costs of United Stirling engines have been published. Comparative estimates for total operating costs have been given by Rosenqvist ef al. (1977), and by Carlqvist et al. (1977) for 150 kW (204 hp) Stirling and diescl engines for the typical 13 000 kg (28 665 lbm) city-suburban delivery truck shown in Fig. 15.19. Initial cost for the Stirling engine was assumed to be 50 per cent higher than the diesel engine. The radiator eost was assumed to be twice that for the cost of...

Heat Exchangers In Stirling Engines

A Invout of an advanced concept study engine for automotive propulsion internally. As a consequence the tubes can be shortened and a substantial gain in dead space achieved thereby. Furthermore the tubes or litis attain a uniform temperature, hot spots are eliminated and so the mean heater temperature which is also now the maximum temperature can be elevated to the metallurgical limit. Use of a sodium heat pipe or eutectie liquid metal loop allows the energy source to be located remotely from...

Pistondisplacer Versus Multiplepiston Engines

Ll has been shown above that many different arrangements of piston-displacer machines and multiple-piston machines are possible, some of which have been developed to a commercial degree. There is no one irfMiiocmnni that excels above all others in every case, but there are a Fio. 6.8. Alternative arrangement ol single-acting two-piston engine. Fio. 6.8. Alternative arrangement ol single-acting two-piston engine. larger machines, the choice may lie between multiple, single-cylinder,...

P

ratio of the dimensionless engine output with compound working fluid to the output with a gaseous working fluid r - temperature ratio TC TE < l> crank angle ( ) u> angular speed Note The suffix a or v refers to the air or vapour component. An upper case suffix refers to a constant or maximum value. A lower case suffix refers to an instantaneous value. The principal independent design parameters of a regenerative Stirling engine, according to the Schmidt analysis, arc 1. the temperature...

7 University research related to Stirling engines

Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Syracuse, New York. USA. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave., Johanesburg 2001. South Africa. Joint Centre for Graduate Studies, University of Washington, Richland, Washington, USA. (v) Dr. Allan Organ, Department of Engineering. University of Cambridge, Cambridge. U.K. Department ol Engineering...

25

Elfect of cxlmusl ws ecirculniion on the concentration of oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust of a Philips Stirling engine (after Meijer 1970b). could be comfortably maintained below the then contemporary regulatory proposals for 1975 76. The comparative values are summarized below Emissions Michels (1.972) 1975 76 Regulatory proposals Hydrocarbons 0.062 (0.1) 0.255 (0.41) Carbon Monoxide 0.192 (0.31) 2.113 (3.4) Oxides of Nitrogen 0.109(0.175) 0.249(0.4) Similar data confirming the...

Uk

(c) Catalogues of Caldwell Industries, 603 609 E. Davis St., Luting, Texas 78648, USA. 5. Demonstration Stirling engine and teaching aids (i) Mr. William Beale, President, Sunpower Inc., Bromley Building, Athens. Ohio, USA. and Blockwall Lane, London SE10, U.K. (m) G. Cussons Ltd., 102 Gt. Clowes St Manchester. U.K. (iv) Radan Associates Ltd., 20 Grove St., Bath. U.K.

Rn r i run rzri i 1 n m pn

Fia. 16.L Pictorial cross-section of the JP1 Stirling laboratory research engine (after explored systematically by General Motors in the 1960s for underwater power systems. This work is discussed in Chapters 13 and 18. Although primarily concerned with marine applications, the program, in 1964, embraced the installation in an automobile of a 22 k V (30 hp) engine driven from a heated alumina thermal-energy source. This was probably the first Stirling engine in a vehicle as well as the first...

80

Comparison of the effects of maximum cycle pressure and temperature on the maximum possible efficiency versus power-density characteristic for engines using hydrogen as the working tluid with a brake power output of 165 kVV (22-1 brake hp) per cylinder and a cooler temperature of 25 C (77 'Fi Results were calculated using the Philips simulation program No allowance made in computation ot efficiency for losses in the preheater (after volume. The engines were optimized for maximum...

7117

Arc-matrix regenerator straw. ( Iter Hoffman 1976). Dimensions arc in inches. Fig. 17.12. Arc-matrix regenerator straw. ( Iter Hoffman 1976). Dimensions arc in inches. Fjo. 17.13, Pneumatic cfliclency of Aerojet Ihermocompressor as a function of engine cyclic rate with different regenerator sections (after Hoffman 1976 RGAP denotes the radial gap in inches VRV denotes the regenerator void volume). Fig. 17.14, Animal tests of Aerojet heart-assist systems arc carried out at the...

Ilk n m [If ticos

M* 2 1.1 - k J (1 + 5 cos( > - 0))J (8'30) K r L - SI g(sin(( > - 01 -sin(0 - )) -sin(< f> - a)l 2 1 -F k J (1+Scos (< b-0)f J 180 working fluids in stirling engines * (1 + k) Vl + iC (H-6 cos < f> - 0)) (8-32) d(m m*) _ I + g KX (1 - 5)( - 5 sin(< > - 0)) d i> 1 + kAi4K (l + ScOsi -fl))2 Nomenclature The nomenclature for the above is precisely that used for the Schmidt cycle analysis in Chapter 4 with the addition or substitution of A defined by (K7+ k' + 2kK cos a B...

138148

J. (L972). A high performance radiator. Proc. 7th F.E.C.E.C Paper no. 729132. San Diego. Ca. Spigt. C. L. and Mkuer, R. J. 11977). Design considerations of i thermal storage Stirling engine automobile. S.A.E. Paper No. 770080, pp 1 12. Detroit. Mich. Auxtm, W L. < 1977). Development of a Stirling engine powered heat activated heat pump. Proc. I2ih I.E.C.E.C., pp. 397-401, Washington. D.C., Aug. 28-Scpt. 2. - (1978). Design study of a general purpose Stirling test...

210

And power output at high cylinder-head temperatures to a maximum of 32.2 at the minimum power output at low cylinder-head temperatures. The reduced engine performance data obtained by Ward are summarized in Table 9.2. The data are arranged in four sub-tables for constant speeds of 1800, 1600, 1400 and 1200 revolutions per minute. In all cases measurements were made at cylinder-head temperatures of 900, 800, 700 and 600 C (1652, 1472, 1292 and 1112 F). with mean cycle pressures in the range 0.4...

Definition

A Stirling engine is a mechanical device which operates on a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle, with cyclic compression and expansion of the working fluid at different temperature levels. The flow is controlled by volume changes, and there is a net conversion of heat to work or vice versa. This generalized definition embraces a large family of machines with different functions, characteristics, and configurations. It includes both rotary arid reciprocating machines, utilizing mechanisms...

Gaseous Working Fluids

TheoreticaI comparisons The first numerical comparison of different working fluids was given by Meijer (1970a) with the presentation of the characteristics reproduced in Fig. 8.1. I bis figure was a summary of extensive computer optimization studies carried out by Philips using their Stirling engine simulation computer program. All the results referred to large engines of 165 kW (225 brake hp) per cylinder having a heater temperature of 700 C (1295CF). cooler temperature of 25 C (77 F) and...

10 Control Systems For Stirling Engines

Control systems are necessary to regulate the power output (torque) and speed of a Stirling engine. Sometimes the engine speed is held constant whatever the load, i.e. stationary constant-speed fixed-frequency electric-power generators. Sometimes, as in automotive applications, wide ranges of both speed and load are encountered. A rapid response of the engine to sudden changes in load is important in many applications. The eflicicncy of the engine is also important. Hngines operate most of the...

498 Stirling Engine Burnerpreheater Cross Section

Cross-section of Philips-Ford 4 98 Stirling engine hurner preheater. Regenerative heat exchangers olfer the prospect of air preheaters that are lighter in weight, less bulky, cheaper, and with reduced tendency to fouling than recuperative exchangers. Regenerative exchangers are used in the Philips Ford multicylinder engines with swashplate drive which are under development for automotive use. Fig. 7.16 is a cross-section of the hot parts assembly of a Philips Ford automotive...

Automotive Applications In Mining

Hallare and Rosenqvist (1977) indicated that the first commercial applications for United Stirling engines will be for underground mine vehicles. The use of diesel engines in underground minework is a subject of increasing concern to those involved with industrial health and safety. There is concern at the lone term effects on health of inhaling diesel exhaust emissions. There are dangers of fire and explosion from the high temperature exhausts, particularly after the safety devices have been...

19 Stirling Engines For Heat Pumps Stationary Power And Totalenergy Systems

Stirling engines are under study or development for a variety of non-automotive applications that can be broadly classified into three groups heat pumps, stationary power generation and total energy or co-generation systems. A hear pump is a device used for heating or cooling, usually as part of the air conditioning system of a building. In the heating mode it draws heat at ambient temperature from a thermal reservoir, such as a river, lake, or the ground around the building. It 'pumps' the...

143

* hare engine with piehcaler 1 without llywheel. 8volumes include acee& orici N. The program designed, built, and operated the 7.3 k V (10hp) engine generator sets for the lirst Stirling-electric hybrid passenger cars, known as the Stir-Lec I and II. It also made the first exhaust-emission tests on a Stirling powered vehicle. 15. The program performed the first endurance tests approaching 'military standard' severity on a Stirling generator set. 16. The program made the following application...

Abbreviations

In the following references, titles of journals are abbreviated as recommended in the World list of scientific periodicals (ed. P. Brown and G. B. Stratton, Butterworth. London. 1 63-5 and later supplements). 1 lowever, research reports and other documents with restricted circulation, many of which are of United States origin, are quoted in the style used in journals published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). A number of abbreviations not found in the World list, but...

So Mr Elementary Considerations

Tin- first and second Laws of Thermodynamics appear to apply to all thermal power machines, including Stirling engines. Unfortunately no way to demonstrate the first and second laws in some simple but irrefutable fashion has been devised. Equally, of course, it is completely outside human experience for a machine to behave in contravention of these fundamental laws, despite the aspirations ol many inventors. Proposals for perpetual motion machines always contravene the fust or second law....

710

Similar blow and reversal periods exist for the passage of the cold fluid. As lliffe (1948) has pointed out, in practical regenerators the blow period is the same as the reversal period, since the last portion of fluid to enter is driven out by the other fluid through the port by which it came in. fn the hypothetical ideal regenerator. the blow period is always less than the reversal period by the time taken for a gas particle to travel from one end of the...

26

General Motors looks to future. Engineering, Lond 202 p. 927. -- (1968a). Stirling engine isotope power source. Isotop. and Radial. Technol., -(1968b). Smogless Stirling engine promises new versatility. Product. Engng - (1968c). GM Stirlec a Stirling engine electric hybrid car. OMR ----(1968d). The General Motors Stirling engine, application from under the sea to outer space. GMR Laboratories, Warren, Mich. -< 1969a). Stirling Engine a new lease on life. Xlech. Engng p 52. July....

6 Cryogeme cooling engines

PrasL Cryogenics Division, N. V. Philips. Eindhoven, Netherlands. (ii) Mr. Alex Daniels, Philips Laboratory, 345 Scarborough Rd Briarcliff Manor. (iii) Mr. Fred Chcllis, Cryogenic Technology Inc Waltham, Hughes Aircraft Company. Centincla and Tcale Streets, Culver City, Ca. 90230, USA. (v) Cryogenics Division, Martin Marietta Inc., Orlando, Florida, USA. Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas. USA. (vii) Dr. William Clifford, Cryomech. Inc., Syracuse, New York. USA. (viii) Cryo-coolcr...

383

Mass distribution 56-57 Mass flow. 130 Mass flow rate, 144, 185-188 Moss ratio. 177, 182. 183-184 Materials. 2, 45, 78-79, 85, 87, 89, 91. 105, 140,151. 153, 154. 158-159. 164. 173. 222-223, 302. 385-387. 434-J37 Matrix, regenerative. 16-19, 90. 140-159, 412, 461, 475 McDonncl-Douglas artificial heart engine, 402-407 Mean cycle pressure, 53-54 Mean flow rate. 133 Mean rubbing velocity, 90 Mechanical arrangements, 07-123 Mcchanicat friction, 40, 42, 16-1, 230 Mechanical vibrations, 254-257 Metal...

Temperature And Energy Di St Ri Hut

Fig. 7.2 shows a typical temperature distribution in a Stirling engine of advanced design. Inlet-air enters the engine at the atmosphere temperature and is heated in the preheater before passing to the combustion space. Fuel is added and combustion occurs, heating the products of combustion to a very high temperature. The combustion products then pass through the heater, where heat is transferred to the working fluid, and through the preheater. where heat is transferred to the inlet-air. The...

The Literature Of Stirling Engines

The following bibliography of Stirling engines includes books, papers, patents, and other material generally available from a good technical library. The material is arranged in alphabetical order of the prime author. The list is by no means complete. Additions arc being entered constantly as new papers are written, and as others, previously unknown, are found. Many of these contribute further new references. All the material has been through the author's hand at one time or another and most...

[ J

C.V.S. lest simulation of a 128 kW Stirling passenger ear engine. Proc. .E.C.E.C. pp. 875-886. San Diego, Ca. - (1976). The Philips Stirling engine a study ol its efFicicncy as a function of operating temperatures and working fluids. Proc. 11th l.EC.E.C., Paper No. 769258. Lake Tahoc. Nov., Sept. 12-17. -and Philips. N. J. (1972). C.V.S. test simulation of a 128kW Stirling and other passenger car engines. Glocilampen Fabrieken, Eindhoven. Netherlands. Mikaichev, V. E. and Zukov, V. M....

Rhgenerative Braking And Propulsion

In surface mines large trucks are used lo move both the overburden and product. Payloads of 100* 1()3 and 2(> 0xl03kg (220 500 and 441 000 lb J are common. A prototype unit of 35 x 104 kg (771 750 lb, J pay load, the Terex Titan, has been constructed in Canada and larger units are contemplated. These giant machines are powered by 735 kW (1000 hp) locomotive diesel engines driving an electric generator which in turn supplies power to the propulsion motors in the rear wheels. Smaller trucks,...

Ps

There is every reason to believe that the compound working fluid would be similarly dependent but there is insufficient data presently available for rigorous analysis. All the work outlined above was carried out with reference to prime movers, power systems converting heat to work. The expansion space was heated and the compression space was cooled. The applicability of the concept of compound working fluids to refrigeration applications was investigated by Walker and Agbi...

5wx lTQm427

Finkelstein (1960a) devised a generalized thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engines in which the processes of compression and expansion were not confined to isothermal conditions. In this generalized analysis the processes of compression anil expansion in it- engine cylinders could be specified to occur anywhere between the two limiting cases (a) isothermal (infinite rates of heat transfer between the working gas and the cylinder walls). (b) adiabatic (zero rates of heat transfer between the...

135

Stirling engine betters efficiency. Power, Sept. Gakouny, M. and Pechersky, M J. (1976). Optimization of engines operated remotely by laser power. Conf. on Laser Energy Conversion. NASA SP-395. pp. 173-180. --(1976). Laser engines operating by resonance absorption. Appl. Opt., Gasiarovic, N. (1972). Engines with Rhombic Drive Mechanism. Marine Eng. Rev 77. pp. 25-27. Gawron. K. and Schroder, J. (1972). Heat storage properties of eutectic fluoride mixtures. 4tlt European...

Bibliography And References

And system composed of a plurality of these machines. U.S. Patent 3 074 229, Jan. 22. Bahcock, G. H. (1885). Substitutes for steam. Trans. Am. Sttc. mech. Ercgrs, 7, pp. 680-741. Baiinice, G. D. and Howard, C. P. (1964). 'I*he etTeci of longitudinal heat conduction on periodic-flow heat-exchanger performance. . . Engng Pwr. A86, pp. 105-120. Baker. L Mamikausa. and Petrozzi, R. .1. (19641. Physical properties of nitrogen tctroxidc. Pubn. 870. Aerojet General Corp., Sacramento, Ca. Balkan, S...

500

Fig. 15.17 Speed and pressure response for a United Stirling double-acting engine lype V4X. 35. in the free-running mode, i.e. driving auxiliaries but disengaged from dynamometer load (after Haliarc and Roscnqvist 1977). Blower Electronic Thermocouple control unit Firj. 15.18. Simplified diagram ol the fuel an control system used on United Stirling engines. (Courtesy United Stirling). engine (presumably a Type P75), with no exhaust gas recirculation, as Hydrocarbons and nitrous oxides 2.85...

K15

10hp Stirling Engine Heating Head

With ring for ixot ope heat bui less isotope capsules. ** alt c'.iitii without comb- system ' 200 Shp. 3000 rpm. 1600 larger military submarines incorporating aluminum oxide heut storage. (d) It designed rhombic engines for installation in buses. (e) It included conceptual designs of a swash-plate automobile engine for Oldsmobilc. (0 At the Allison Division, it included conceptual design studies of a solar-heated power-plant, a chemically fuelled space power-plant, an isotope-heated space...

Cooler Design

In principle Stirling engines may be air-cooled or water-cooled just as internal combustion engines are. However we have seen earlier that because the exhaust stack loss must be low. the cooling system of a Stirling engine must handle up to twice the load imposed on the cooling system of an internal combustion engine of similar power output. In addition to this, the efficiency of a Stirling engine falls markedly as the cooler temperature increases and is accompanied by deterioration in the...

650

Bus Philips Stirling Engine

Details of the bore, stroke, mean pressure and operating temperatures are unknown. The P40 engine is most likely a production series version of the V4X engine with a bore of 50mm (1.97 in) and stroke of 46mm (1.81 in) (Carlqvist et ai 1975). A cross-section of the P150 engine is shown in Fig. 15.10. (Carlqvist el al. 1977). This engine is basically twin modules of the P75 engine mounted on a common crankcase. Fie. 15.11 (Carlqvist et al. 1977) shows a P75, V4 engine module with auxiliaries....

1l

0 5 0 1000 1500 2(XK) 2500 (W n(rpin) FlO. 9.10. I lent balance for a single-cylinder, rhomliic-drivc Philips Stirling engine (a) as a function of engine Output at constant speed > i 1501 revolutions per minute, and Hi) ns a function of speed at constant maximum pressure 13.7 MN m (20110 Ib sq in). iAfter ccnl of the total heat supplied and the balance was attributed to 'other losses', presumably due to incomplete fuel combustion and to convcctive and radiative heat transfer from the engine....

Preface

A few years have gone by since the completion of my earlier work Stirling cycle machines. Much has happened in that interval. It is timely to attempt, not simply a revised and updated version, but rather the production of a more substantial work. The earlier book was prepared from a collection of notes put together hurriedly for a one-day seminar during sabbatical leave at the University of Bath in England, where I was remote from my reference collection. 'I he slender volume was surprisingly...

15

New Stirling-cycle zero-pollution car runs on stored heat. Popular Science, pp. 66-68, 148, June. - (1975b). Stirling-cycle liquid-piston engine with no moving parts. Popular - (1975). Flame-powered push-pull generator runs a year without maintenance, refueling. Popular Science, Feb. Seicuk, M. K Wu, Y. C Moynthan. P. I. and Day, F. D. (1977). Solar Stirling power generation systems analysis and preliminary tests. International Solar Energy Societv Solar World Conference. Orlando,...

Nomenclature

Stirling engines are frequently called by other names, including hot-air or hot-gas engines, or one of a number of designations reserved for particular arrangements of engine, i.e. I leinrici. Robinson, or Rankine-Napier. The result is a general lack of clarity in the nomenclature. It may be argued, convincingly, that the designation 'Stirling cycle' should be reserved for a particular idealized thermodynamic cycle, and the name 'Stirling engine' for a particular form of machine (which,...

1023

Design manual for Stirling engines. DOE NASA Report, available (1978b). Comparison of calculation procedures for Stirling engines with experimental measurements. Proc. 13th .E.C.E.C, San Diego. Ca Aug. 20-3. -(1978c). Status of Stirling machine design techniques, hist, of Gas. Tech. Seminar. Stirling Cycle Prime Movers. Chicago. June. ---- (1978d). A Stirling engine design analysis manual. DOE Hwv Veh. Syst. ---Hauser, S. G. and Marttni, M. W. (1977). Evaluation of Lsothenrnalizcd...

Safety

Despite its many attractions as the best working fluid for Stirling engines, hydrogen has the disadvantage of extremely wide flanimability limits in air ranging from 5 to 75 per cent mixtures of hydrogen and air. Other gases, methane, for example, have much closer flanimability limits of 6 to 14 per cent methane in air by volume. Moreover, hydrogen has a high affinity to oxygen and the enthalpy of reaction (heat released in burning) 129000kJ kg (30 960 Btu lbJ of hydrogen, compares with 50 143...

3 0 I

I I Work diagrams lor engines having Ihc optimum combiunlion of design parameters. The figure shows work diagrams foi engines having optimum combinations of the design parameters a, A r, and A, is determined hy rcicroncc to the three-dimensional representation shown in l-ig. 5.13. In all eases, she diagram at left is for the expansion space, (he centre diagram lot (he compression space, and the diagram at right is for the total working-spate, l-'ig. 5.14(a) shows work diagrams for the...

10

Muhitube Heater for Hot-Gas Reciprocating -Yv.hu, J. A. L. and Hej.mngman, E. (1956). Hot-Gas Reciprocating Engine. U.S. Patent 2 746 241, May 22. Dunn. P. D Rio , G. and Turing, R. H. (1975). Hydraulic and rotary drive Stirling engines with fluidised bed combustion heat pipe system. Proc. 10th I.E.C.E.C pp. 942-947, Newark, N.J Aug. 17-22. Dunne, J. (1968). l est driving GM's hybrid electric car a Stirling engine and an electric motor working together a promising...

Transientflow Effects

Difficulties in the design of heal exchangers for Stirling engines arise from the cyclic transient-flow elTects. Most industrial heat exchangers are subject to steady constant-flow conditions with relatively slow rates of change in the flow conditions. This is by no means the case for the heat exchangers used in Stirling engines where the flow conditions change continuously and experience wide variations in pressure, density, and velocity, to the extent of reversing the flow direction twice per...

Preheaters

A preheater is not necessary to the operation of a Stirling engine. It is a desirable accessory for all but small orimitive enuines and it is virtually The function of the preheater is 10 heat incoming air en route to the combustion chamber using thermal energy in the departing stream of hot combustion products. This saves fuel and also endows the engine with the advantageous characteristic of a cool exhaust. Exhaust-gas inlet-air pre-heaters are sometimes also used on steam (Rankine cycle) and...

General Aspects Of Design

The best compilation of design daia for the heat exchangers in Stirling engines is undoubtedly the classic work by Kays and London (1964) entitled Compact Heat Exchangers. The book is. quite simply, required reading for anyone wishing to undertake the design or analysis of the heat nature and wide availability of the book no effort will be made to reproduce the straightforward design procedures for compact tubular, finned and regenerative heat exchangers that are so well treated therein....

Summary

The contributions to Stirling engine technology made by General Motors in the period 1958-1970 were summarized by Percival (1974) as follows 1. Their program developed smokeless, turbine-tvpe burners and the direct ignition of diesel fuel. 2. Their program developed complete, self-contained Stirling Ground Power generator sets and introduced these to the U.S. Army Research Laboratories for evaluation. These were the only modern low-noise engine packages to formally-specified military...

9 Operating Characteristics Of Stirling Engines

A Stirling engine consists essentially of two spaces of variable volume and different temperatures connected by a duct. The spaces arc (illed with the working fluid and the duct is provided with apparatus for adding heat (heater), abstracting heat (cooler) or storing heat (regenerator). The system can be arranged in any number of ways, in single or multiple combinations, with the volume variations caused by reciprocating or rotary motion. Whatever form of mechanical arrangement is adopted...

Mdc G2025 19689

Implanted energy conversion svstcm. MDAC Annual Report. No. -(1972). Developments in Stirling engines. ASME Paper No. 72-WA Encr-9, (1974). Development and evaluation of a modified Stirling-cycle Engine. MDAC Quarterly Report, No. MDC G443.S, April. - (1975a). The frce-displaccr. free-piston Stirling engine Potential Energy Conserver. Proc. 10th I.E.C.E.C., pp. 995-1002, Newark. N.J Aug. 17-22. -I ll)75b> . An etlicient Stirling heat engine heat pump. Proc. 10th LE.C.F C Paper No....

Heat Pumps

Stirling Engine Heat Pump

A Stirling engine may be used in relation to a heat pump in two ways (b) as the prime mover driving a heat pump. When the Stirling engine is used as the heat pump it accepts heat at a low (probably) ambient temperature and rejects the heat at a higher temperature to a heating system. Such an arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 19.1. The system is illustrated by reference to the ideal Stirling cycle P-V diagram and a single-cylinder, piston-displacer. single-acting, Stirling engine....

121

Artificial Heart Cross Section

The engine of the Aerojet unit operated as a thermocompressor inhaling helium at a low pressure l.2MN nr (1801b per sq in) and exhaling it at a higher pressure (1.5 MN rn 215 1b per sqin) through inlet and outlet valves. The llow was therefore controlled by valves and the engine qualified for classification as an Ericsson rather than a Stirling engine using the definitions given earlier. It was, in fact, an Ericsson engine of the Bush variety. The Aerojet engine was a single-cylinder machine...

Stirling Finkelstein 1959

Civil Engineering Engines

The original .Stirling engine. Reproduction of a drawing showing the first Stirling engine, from the original patent specifications of 1816. Such an engine was used in 18IK for pumping water from a quarry (after Finkelstein 1959). 1-IG. 6.5. The original .Stirling engine. Reproduction of a drawing showing the first Stirling engine, from the original patent specifications of 1816. Such an engine was used in 18IK for pumping water from a quarry (after Finkelstein 1959). configuration...

G W

A free-piston Stirling engine is a machine in which the motion of the reciprocating elements to accomplish the thermodynamic cycle are effected by lluid forces and by the dynamical, lluidic interaction of the components. There are no mechanical linkages coupling the pistons or displaccrs. Such machines offer advantages of simplicity, freedom from leakage (since they can be hermetically sealed), low cost, self-starting, and very long life. I hey are being developed for use as thermally activated...

630 429

JrnproucnicuM in or relating to hot-gas reciprocating engines. British -(1948b). fmpropcmciite in or relating to closed cycle hot-gas engines. British (1949a). Improvements in or relating to cvUnder heads for hot-gas engines. British Patent 615 260. (1949b). Improvements in or relating to hot-gas reciprocating engines. British Patent 617 850. (1949c). Improvements in or relating to hot-gas reciprocating engines. British Patent 618 266. - (I949d). Improvements in or relating to hot-gas...

Friction Effects

For the sake of clarity the line 'F F' is transposed to a new diagram. Fig. 9.4. There arc two important friction effects to consider in Stirling engines. The first is the mechanical-friction effect arising from the action of piston rings, rubbing seals, bearings, oil pumping, and the like. With the engine idling and producing no useful output power there will still be considerable mechanical friction. This will increase as the engine speed and pressure increase. Inclusion of mechanical...

Tempiuature Control Systems

Stirling Engine Schematics

The temperature control systems used in Stirling engines are all basically similar. The principle is that the temperature of the heater tubes (or other critical part) is to be maintained constant at all operating condi- lions. The temperature is monitored by a thermocouple which generates a signal for some control device regulating the air flow, fuel Mow or both to maintain the temperature constant. The essential features of the United Stirling temperature control system ire shown in Fig. 10.3....

1 103

Density and frequency effects on the pressure drop across the regenerator of a Stirling-cycle machine. Engineer, l.ond., 216, pp. 1063. - (1965). Some aspects of the design of reversed Stirling-cycle machines. ASHRAE Paper No. 231. Summer Meeting, Portland. - (1965). Regenerative thermal machines A status survey. Proc. 27th Am. - (1967). Stirling-cycle engines tor total-energy systems Report Institute of Gas Technology. Chicago. - (1968). Military Applications of Stirling-Cycle...

Specific Output

Sears Roebuck Steam Engine

The size and weight of Stirling engines for a given power output is important in many applications, particularly in the automotive, locomotive, space, and under-watcr power fields. It is still important, bul rather less critical in the stationary generator, heal pump and total energy, and surface marine fields. Savings in size and weight result from elevation of the pressure of the working fluid and from ingenious design. The rhombic-drive single-action. piston-displacer engines of the 1960s...

Iarly History

Stirling and Ericsson engines have a long history, which has been well surveyed by Finkelstein (1959), by Zarinchang (1972). and by Ross (1977). The earliest air engine recognized by Zarinchang (1972) was the 'atmospheric lire-wheel' of Amontons in France, 1699. Another early air-engine by H. Wood in 1759 used a modified Newcomen atmospheric steam engine 'operating on the principle of hot or rarefied air '. In 1797 Glaze brook described an open-cycle machine operating on what may be...

Kerosene or

Tills Fan is Necessary to Your Complclc Well Belno Fio. I.I. I acsi nile reproduction of nti lulvcrtisinu piccc for a Stirling-engine ventilation internal combustion engines. Nevertheless, by the time of the First World War. hot-air engines were no longer available commercially in large quantity, although production of machines for special purposes continued for many years. One of the widest uses of hot-air engines in small sizes was to drive ventilating fans and water pumps. A facsimile...

Allison Division And The Solar Engine Project

So far as is known, the Allison Division was actively engaged in only one Stirling-engine development a 3 kW (4 hp) solar space power plant. The work was done for Ihe U.S. Air Force and has been excellently documented in a series of ten technical reports (Parker and Malik 1962) of which Volume I on engine design, and Volume 10 on engine experimental evaluation, are most relevant. The remaining reports are concerned with other aspects of the system. The engine was also reported by Parker and...

Stirling Engines For Space Power

Given the elementary but irrefutable logic above it is difficult to understand the virtual total neglect of Stirling engines by NASA during the 1960s. This was the era of prodigious expenditures on hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for the Apollo missions. 011 the Rankine cycle SNAP8 reactor power-plant, and on various Bray ton turbines. So are as is known, no NASA funds atid only minor Air Force funds were expended on Stirling engines. One possible explanation for NASA neglect of Stirling engines is...

Hejsshau J 1977 A Stirling cycle engine parts I and II Model Engr 142 1976 pp 12591265 and 143 1977 pp 2527

L Uhi-emann, H. and Spigt, C. L. (1972). 'Hie combination of a radioisotopic heat source and a Stirling cycle conversion system. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Power from Radioisotopes, pp. 445-466. Madrid. May June. and Asselman, G. A. A. (1978). The Stirling cycle in climate control systems. Voc. 13th .E.C.E.C., San Diego, Ca Aug. 20-25. Herscmel, J. (1850). Making ice. 77ie Athenaeum, p. 22. Jan. 5. II ig a. W H. (1965). Practical Philips cycle for low temperature refrigeration....

Freepiston Stirling Engines

Tin- following chapter was contributed by William Bcalc, President, Sunpower Inc., Athens, Ohio, Heale invented the frcc-piston Stirling engine in the late 1950s while a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Ohio. Over the next dccadc. with remarkably single-minded dedication, he developed the concept to an operational stage. In the university environment he was unable to secure adequate funds to develop the frcc-piston engine commercially and so lie founded the company he...

G

Where < r maximum permissible stress maximum internal pressure < 1 cylinder internal diameter I wall thickness. I he maximum stress to be used in the calculation depends on the material to be used for the cylinder wall. It should be some fraction, say O.N, of the yield or proof stress rather than the ultimate stress. The yield stress foi metals ranges typically from 138 to 1(134 MN m2 (20 000 to 150 000 lbs per sq in) and varies widely with temperature. The sale stress declines markedly and...

Dli Witf121

Bus Philips Stirling Engine

Where < < i, and da are piston or cylinder diameters as shown in big. 12.11. The success of the rolling seal was absolutely dependent on the material used. The requirements were a high fatigue strength, high creep resistance, and resistance to chemical attack by oil or hydrogen. Promising results were obtained with a polyurethane rubber. In rig tests it was found that endurance was largely dependent cm three parameters, temperature. pressure difference across the seal, and the ratio of the...

Qsqa197

Summer Civil Pump

If the same energy input, Qs. were consumed in eleclric resistance heating or in a gas or oil furnace the heat available for heating would simply be Qs. Therefore, use of the heat pump has increased the heat available for heating to Qs+Qa- Depending on the conditions, the increase in effective heating available may range front 40 to 100 per cent. Of course the increase in effective heating has been gained at the expense of a considerable involvement in machinery. The capital cost of a heat pump...

Electromotive Division Engines

Cleveland Diesel Engine Division Work on Stirling engines at the Electromotive Division was not well documented but useful information about this activity can be compiled from the various references listed above, principally Heffner (1966), Percival (1967), Mattavi el al. (1969) and Percival (1974). Work on heavy, high-power Stirling engines apparently started at the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division of General Motors about 1958. Cleveland Diesel had supplied the majority of submarine engines...

Pictorial Steps To Make A Sterling Engine

Philips Stirling Engine Cooler

Cyclic temperature variation of the working fluid in the expansion and compression spaces of a Stii line engine operating with ndiabatic conditions in the two spaces (after pre diet engine performance to one or two per cent of test-bed performance. In this regard it is interesting to observe that Percival (1974) wrote 'In I9(> 0 il was concludcd that there was slill too much deviation between actual and predicted engine performance particularly for I lie 59 kW (SO hp) cylinder size....

4 Theoretical Analysis Of Stirling Engi

Tiieouhticai. analyses of Stirling engines have been developed with varying degrees of sophistication. The most simple analysis is that for the ideal Stirling cycle, where the thermodynamic cycle comprises two isothermal and two constant-volume regenerative processes. However this involves such gross idealization of the process occurring in an actual Stirling engine as to be suitable only for the most elementary, preliminary design calculations. A more realistic analysis was devised by Gustav...

5 Preliminary Engine Design

INTKOUUC.TION Power output i ic Beale number concept Wn i.jam rhai.fi. observed several years ago (hat the power output of many Stirling engines conformed approximately to the simple equation p mean cycle pressure (bar), -cycle frequency or engine speed (hertz), V0 displacement of power piston (cm3). This can be rearranged as P (pfVt> ) constant. The equation was found by Beale to be approximately true for all types and sizes of Stirling engines for which data were available including...

17 Stirling Engines For Artificial Hearts

The Artificial Heart Program in the United States was established in 1964 by the National Heart Institute (Department of Health, Education and Welfare). The objectives of the program were to develop devices that could assist or totally replace the heart. Some devices were intended for temporary circulatory assistance for patients in hospitals and confined to bed. Other devices were intended for permanent implantation in the body to assist or totally replace the heart in pumping blood and to...

Directory

Stirling engine builders engines with kinematic drive (i) Dr. Ir. C. L. Spigt, Stirling Engine Division. N. V. Philips. Eindhoven, Netherlands. (ii) Mr. Alex Daniels, Philips Laboratories, Division of North American Philips Corp., (iii) Dr. Ing. P. Zacharias Motoren-Werke Mannheim A. G., Postfach 1563, (iv) Dr. Ing. U. Zapf, Maschinent'abrik-Augsburg-Nurnburg, D 8900 Augsburg 1, Stadtbachstrassc 1, United Stirling (Sweden) AB and Co., Faek. (vi) F.F V Industrial Products, Linkoping, Sweden....

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J. < 1974). An investigation of the effect of an exhaust gas recuperator on the performance of a Stirling engine. Project Report No. 278. Sch. Engineering. Univ. of Bath. U.K. Pillar, S. (1978). Free-piston Stirling systems for power generation and heat pumps. Inst, of Gas Tech. Seminar, Stirling Cycle Prome Movers, Chicago, HI June. Pitcher, G. K. (1975). Spacecraft Vuilleumier cryogenic refrigerator development. AFFDL Report No. AFFDL-TR-75-114. W.P.A.F.B.,...

Hotair Engine Competitions

The 5 cm3 (0.3 in3) engines of Urwick and Collins were built for the first hot-air engine competition, held at the 1977 Model Engineer Exhibition in London. This competition was sponsored by A. N. Clark and promoted by Model Engineer magazine. In light of the increasing interest in model Stirling engines, it was correctly believed that the time was right for an international competition (Chaddock 1976). Since originality was to be encouraged, the rules were few. The only significant restriction...

Totalenergy Systems

A total-energy or co-generation system is an ensemble of machinery utilizing a single or varied energy source to provide a range of utilities in a building or plant. Typically the total energy plant in the basement of an office building is supplied with natural gas fuel. Combustion of the gas produces heal, part of which is used in an engine to drive electric generators providing high frequency (400 cycle per second) power for lighting and low frequency (60 cycles per second) power for other...

7 Heat Exchangers In Stirling Engines

American Combustion Technology Handbook

Heat exchangers arc key components in Stirling engines their significance cannot he overemphasized. No engine can work properly with poor heat exchangers although, conversely, the best heat exchangers will not, of themselves, make good an otherwise poor engine. There may be four separate heat exchangers in a Stirling engine system. These are illustrated in Fig. 7.1 and include, for the prime mover converting heat to work (a) heater fb) regenerator (c) cooler For the refrigerator, utilizing work...

15 United Stirling Engines

Stirling Engine

United Stirling A.B., was formed in 1968 by Forenade Fabriksverken (FFV) and Kockums Mekaniska Verkstads A. B. FFV is a defence-related industrial group owned by the Swedish government. Kockums is a large publicly-owned Swedish company having its main business in shipbuilding and the lumber industry. The declared aim of United Stirling is to commercialize the Stirling engine. Following a decade of development they appear to be well on the way to achieving this aim with both...

Power Control Systems

Variation in the mean pressure level of the working fluid is the most widely used and best-known control system for power regulation in Stirling engines. It was used to some extent on the more sophisticated air engines of (he nineteenth century and was early adopted as the principal power control system for Philips engines (van Wecnan 1947). Constant speed system (Philips) Meijer (1959a) gave an excellent description of the system used for power regulation on the first rhombic-drive engines...

Stationary Power Generation

Cryogenic Stirling Engine

Stationary power generation is a term embracing the widest possibilities. Engines that may be stationary power plants in one application may be adapted as the auxiliary equipment or even the main propulsion machinery in space, aeronautic, marine, railway, automotive, or recreational vehicle applications. Stirling engines have attractive characteristics for stationary power applications. They have a wide multifucl capability, operate without noise, have excellent part-load performance, and...

Gm Research Engines

Percival (1974) has indicated that in the first five years of research and development work on Stirling engines cITort was concentrated on component development, specifically (a) seals for the piston and piston rods in rhombic drive engines to prevent both leakage of gas and ingress of oil to the working fluid, (c) improvement in combustion and burner nozzle designs, (d) durability of the preheater. (f) reduction of regenerator cost. (h) refinement of the cycle analysis. (j) numerous studies...