Basic Soap Making

Guide To Creating Spa Products

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. Continue reading...

Guide To Creating Spa Products Summary


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Removal of Polishing and Buffing Compounds

Polishing and buffing compounds are difficult to remove because the soil they deposit is composed of burned-on grease, metallic soaps, waxes, and vehicles that are contaminated with fine particles of metal and abrasive. Consequently, cleaning requirements should be considered when selecting polishing and buffing compounds. Compounds used for obtaining buffed and polished finishes may be classified by cleaning requirements

Loss of surface films in high vacuum

Surface contaminant films of soaps, oils and water, etc., and surface layers of oxides, etc., enable components to rub together without seizure under normal atmospheric conditions. Increasing vacuum causes the films to be lost, and reduces the rate at which oxide layers reform after rubbing. The chance of seizure is therefore increased. Most soaps and oils lost from surface

Effect Of Lubricants And Surface Films

The most effective way of reducing friction and wear is to prevent contact between the surfaces. This is achieved, ideally, if the surfaces can run under hydrodynamic or elasto-hydrodynamic conditions with the equilibrium film thickness greater than the height of the surface asperities. In this case the chemical nature of the lubricant is immaterial, only its viscous properties are relevant. If, however, contact occurs through the liquid film it is desirable to add to the lubricant, additives of specific chemical properties. For example, polar molecules can adsorb on the surfaces to give a thin protective film which will prevent the surfaces themselves from coming into contact. If the rubbing surfaces are metals, fatty acids which can react to form metal soaps are particularly effective. Again, if the lubricant contains reactive chlorine or sulphur

Safety Precautions

Oil-based compounds generally present few health hazards and may have no more ill effects, physiologically, than household soaps. However, these materials usually owe their rust-preventing characteristics to surface-active agents, which can contain heavy metals, such as barium. If excessive quantities are allowed to remain on the skin for extended periods of time, then toxicity can result. This type of product should be kept from contacting the eyes. Some people also experience a sensitivity to oil when it contacts their skin for extended periods. Although oil-based compounds usually do not present fire or explosion hazards, they should not be exposed to intense heat.

Constituent Materials

Certain additives will adhere to and passivate metal surfaces, providing short-term protection. Other additives act as oxygen scavengers, preventing oxygen from reacting with a metal surface and causing corrosion. Wetting-agent additives help spread a film and act as emulsifiers, aiding in film removal. They also serve a water-displacement function. Lubricants such as esters, soaps, and extreme-pressure additives (which are effective under high pressures and temperatures) are often used. There also are additives that facilitate fingerprint neutralization and removal. They neutralize acids, salts, and other residues that may be introduced during handling. Lubricants such as esters, soaps, and extreme-pressure additives (which are effective under high pressures and temperatures) are oftem used. In some instances, rust-preventive compounds are removed after they have performed the intended operation and prior to reapplication of a longer-term rust-preventive compound.

Common Inorganic Chemicals

Calcium oxide, CaO, unslaked lime, quick lime white powder. Produced by roasting calcium carbonate (limestone, oyster shells), and contains impurities present in the source material. Evolves heat on slaking to form hydrated lime. Strong irritant. Used in oil muds for the formation of calcium soaps and removal of water. Mainly used as slaked lime in water muds.

Removal of Pigmented Drawing Compounds

All pigmented drawing lubricants are difficult to remove from metal parts. Consequently, many plants review all aspects of press forming operations to avoid the use of pigmented compounds. Pigmented compounds most commonly used contain one or more of the following substances whiting, lithopone, mica, zinc oxide, bentonite, flour, graphite, white lead (which is highly toxic), molybdenum disulfide, animal fat, and soaplike materials. Some of these substances are more difficult to remove than others. Because of their chemical inertness to acid and alkali used in the cleaners and tight adherence to metal surfaces, graphite, white lead, molybdenum disulfide, and soaps are the most difficult to solubilize and remove.

Table 731 Summary Of The Origin And Characteristics Of Selected Industrial Wastewater

Varied dilute acids Washing and purifying soaps High in BOD and saponified soaps TNT, colored, acid, odorous, and containing organic acids and alcohol from powder and cotton, metals, acid, oils, and soaps High organic matter, benzenering structure, toxic to bacteria and fish, and acid

Cleaning Mechanisms

Saponification is limited to the removal of fats or other organic compounds that react chemically with alkaline salts. Fatty compounds, both animal and vegetable, react with the alkaline cleaner salts in the cleaning solution to form water-soluble soaps. The soap formed may be either beneficial or detrimental to the performance of the cleaner.


Alkaline precleaning before acid pickling is beneficial for removing soils that do not readily react with acid, such as grease, oil, soaps, lubricants, and carrier coatings. A buildup of such materials in a pickling bath interferes with the pickling action, especially when the pickling time is short (20 s or less). A typical alkaline cleaning solution contains 20 sodium hydroxide, 30 organic chelating agents, 45 complex phosphates, and 5 surface-activating agents. The concentration of the cleaner in the precleaning solution is 30 to 45 g L (4 to 6 oz gal), and the operating temperature of the solution ranges from 82 C (180 F) to boiling. After immersion in the cleaning solution, the work is rinsed in water at room temperature.


Some of the more abundant are sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, vanadium, and nickel. They are present either as inorganic salts, such as sodium and magnesium chlorides, or in the form of organometallic compounds, such as those of nickel and vanadium (as in porphyrins). Calcium and magnesium can form salts or soaps with carboxylic acids. These compounds act as emul-sifiers, and their presence is undesirable.

Oil Emulsion Muds

The interpretation of electric logs and cores was not adversely affected. There was some evidence of improved productivity none of impairment. Emulsification of oil was effected by substances already presem in the mud, such as lignosulfonates, lignitic compounds, starch, CMC. or bentonite. or by the addition of surfactants, such as soaps. Similar favorable experiences with the use of oil in all types of clay-water muds was reported bv the API Mid Continent Study Committee on Drilling Fluids.00

Oil Containers

Galvanized (that is, zinc-coated) iron containers should not be used for lubricating oils. Zinc may react with certain constituents of oil, compounding materials, or oxidation products to form viscous metallic soaps that thicken oil and act as catalysts promoting oil oxidation.

3117 Lubrication

Grease is an oil to which a thickener has been added to prevent oil migration from the lubrication site. It is used in situations where frequent replenishment of the lubricant is undesirable or impossible. All of the oil types mentioned in the next subsection can be used as grease bases to which are added metallic soaps, synthetic fillers, and thickeners. The operative properties of grease depend almost wholly on the base oil. Other factors being equal, the use of grease rather than oil results in higher starting and running torque and can limit the bearing to lower speeds.


Early process control can reduce the quantity of treatable waste. Segregation as a part of early control can simplify treatment processes. The presence of emulsifiers, wetting agents, soaps, deflocculants, and dispersants, as well as finely divided suspended solids, makes separation of oily materials and the treatment of wastes more difficult. Advantages can be realized from high temperatures and low pH levels, and the presence of substances that make necessary pH adjustments impractical may be avoided.

1812Oil additives

Metallic soaps, sulphonates, phosphonates, thiophosphonates, phenates and phenate sulfides. Ashless types polymerised olefins, acrylated amines, pyrridones, carboxylic acids and polyglycols Esters methacrylates, acrylates, alcoholates and polycarboxylic acid Zinc dithiophosphate, tricreasyl phosphate, lead soaps, organic sulphur and chlorine compounds and sulphurised fats such as sulphurised sperm oil Latex, linear polymers and isobutylene


Solvent procedures are ideal for removing mineral oils, greases, and many types of vegetable oils, but are less effective with certain types of drawing compounds and spinning soaps which leave behind solid constituents. In a liquor-vapor plant, a short cooling period should follow immersion in the boiling solvent to ensure that adequate condensation of solvent occurs on the articles which should be so racked or supported that the condensed solvent runs off them completely and does not collect in recesses.

Sludge Processing

Objectives Sludges consist primarily of the solids removed from liquid wastes during their processing. Thus, sludges could contain a wide variety of pollutants and residuals from the application of treatment chemicals i.e., large organic solids, colloidal organic solids, metal sulfides, heavy-metal hydroxides and carbonates, heavy-metal organic complexes, calcium and magnesium hydroxides, calcium carbonate, precipitated soaps and detergents, and biomass and precipitated phosphates. As sludge even after extensive concentration and dewatering is still greater than 50 percent by weight water, it can also contain soluble pollutants such as ammonia, priority pollutants, and nonbiologically degradable COD.


Packaging industry and its technology is the major outlet for plastics where it consumes about 30wt of all plastics (yearly sales above 40 billion) with building and construction in second place consuming about 20wt . If plastic packaging were not used, the amount of packaging contents (food, soaps, etc.) discarded from USA households would more than double. Plastics are the most efficient packaging materials due to their higher product-to-package ratio as compared to other materials. One ounce of plastic packaging can hold about 34 ounces of product. A comparison of product delivered per ounce of packaging material shows 34.0 plastics, 21.7 aluminum, 6.9 paper, 5.6 steel, and 1.8 glass.

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