Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. More here...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary


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Nonmineral Processing Recycling

PVC and PET can be separated from the others by gravity separation and by using 190 ppm of a surfactant, methyl iso-butyl carbinol (MIBC), at pH 11 in a 1 suspension of the solids, the PVC can be removed in a flotation froth giving high recoveries and purities, leaving pure PET in the unfloated tailings. This process, although at an early stage, offers a promising recycling opportunity.

Additional Separation And Recycling

Perhaps the most extreme examples of separation and recycling are purge streams. Purges deal with both feed impurities and the by-products of the reaction. Purifying the feed can reduce the size of some purges. However, if purification is not practical or the purge must remove a byproduct of the reaction, additional separation is necessary. For each fractional recovery, a tradeoff exists between the capital and the energy required to obtain the optimum reflux ratio. The result is that the cost of separation (capital and energy) increases with increasing recovery (see Figure 3.8.11). On the other hand, increasing recovery saves the cost of some of the lost acetone. Adding the cost of raw materials to the cost of separation and recycling FIG. 3.8.10 Process improved by recycling the excess reactant and solvent used in the reaction.

Providing Separate Reactors for the Recycling Stream

Recycling by-product and waste streams is an excellent way of reducing waste, but often the ideal reactor conditions for converting recycling streams to usable products are different from conditions in the primary reactors. One solution is to provide a separate, smaller reactor for handling recycling and waste streams (see Figure 3.10.3). The temperatures, pressures, and concentrations can then be optimized in both reactors to take maximum advantage of reaction kinetics and equilibrium.

12414Automotive plastics recycling

With the increasing use of plastics in automobiles, this has forced attention to the problem of recycling these automotive plastics. While some recycling of auto parts has been covered in the sections on recycling of individual plastic resins, it is also useful to look at automotive recycling in a more unified way. Recycling of automobiles has a very long history, but most of the effort in the past has focused on recovery of metals steel in particular. The plastics in cars remained in the auto shredder residue or fluff, and have routinely been destined for disposal rather than recycling. Recycling of rubber, both from tires and from car parts, is an important part of automotive recycling efforts, but will not be addressed here. Recovery of plastics from fluff, which contains a variety of plastic and nonplastic components, has not been achieved commercially. Much as recovery of plastics from household waste is more successful when the targeted materials are...

Recycling and Labeling Requirements

The use of ozone-depleting substances will continue even though the manufacture of CFCs has stopped. Under the Act, the EPA must promulgate regulations that maximize the recapture and recycling of ozone-depleting substances. In 1992, the EPA issued final regulations on the servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners, which gave equipment standards for the mandatory recycling and or reclamation of the ozone depleting substances. The EPA was also required to promulgate rules to regulate the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances used in appliances and industrial process refrigeration by 1992. The EPA was late in developing these rules, however, and finalized them in 1993. The regulations prohibit anyone who maintains, services, repairs, or disposes of appliances from venting or releasing substances such as refrigerants. The regulations also provide for a reduction in the use and emissions of CFCs and halons by maximizing the recycling of these substances.

5411Reuse or recycling of industrial waste

Consideration of the cost of investigating or developing methods for the re-use or recycling of industrial waste may appear prohibitive but many companies that have carried out investigations have discovered that not only do they achieve an environmental improvement but the exercise proves economically viable. (d) The collection of cardboard and waste paper for recycling.

41 Plastic Recycling Mandates

About 95 of all automobiles are recycled however, recycling is generally limited to the 75 by weight of the vehicle that is metallic. The remaining 25 , including a significant amount of plastics, have been difficult to recycle cost effectively (46). As a result, most of that remaining material, known as automotive shredder residue (ASR), is disposed of in landfills. The European Parliament has ratified a directive for processing end-of-life vehicles (ELV) that affects primarily automakers, dismantlers, and material recyclers. The aim of the ELV directive is to increase the rate of recovery and recycling of vehicle components. Automakers will be expected to meet all or a significant part of the take-back costs of ELVs. The directive mandates a rate of recovery of 85 by weight by 2006 (of which 80 is recycled), which will rise in 2015 to a recovery of 95 by weight (of which 85 is recycled). For vehicles sold after January 1, 2001, automakers are immediately responsible for the costs of...

123 Design for Recycling

It has become obvious that many of the difficulties of recycling plastics are related to difficulties in separating plastics from other wastes and in sorting plastics by resin type. Design of products can do a lot to either exacerbate or minimize these difficulties. Therefore, increasing attention is being given to designing products with recycling in mind. The general philosophy is to simplify identification of plastics by resin type, and further, either make it relatively easy to separate the various plastic streams from each other, as well as from nonplastic components, or to use plastics which are compatible with each other and, therefore, do not need to be separated. One of the relatively early efforts to produce guidelines for design for recycling was the City Industry Plastic Bottle Redesign Project, established in early 1994 to reach a consensus on design changes for plastic bottles, aimed at improving the economics of recycling. The city representatives included Dallas,...

124 Recycling of Major Polymers

The amount of plastics entering the municipal solid waste stream in the United States in 1996 is estimated at 19.7 million tons. The amount which was recycled was 1.1 million tons, or 5.4 of plastics generation (see Figs. 12.5 and 12.6). The remaining 18.7 million tons amounted to 12.3 by weight of total MSW discards.2 Recycling rates are significantly higher for some plastic materials than for others, and for some types of plastic products, as will be discussed in more detail in the following sections (see Figs. 12.7 and 12.8). Many recycling programs for plastics focus on plastic containers, or even more narrowly on plastic bottles. The American Plastics Council (APC) calculated the 1996 recycling rate for rigid plastic containers as 21.2 . The rate for

Recycling H2SO4 and Dimethyl Isopropylamine from an Acid Scrubber

Electrolytic Flotation

A complete recycling of the amine, the sulfuric acid and water is achieved without the production of a salt by combining the electrodialytic water dissociation with distillation. The process is illustrated in Figure 6. The waste air stream containing the amines is fed into an acid scrubber where the free amine is converted into amine sulfate. The effluent of the acid scrubber containing about 10 amine sulfate in a mixture with sulfuric acid is then fed into the electrodialytic water dissociation apparatus

122 Overview of Recycling

For plastics recycling (or recycling of other materials) to occur, three basic elements must be in place. First, there must be a system for collecting the targeted materials. Second, there must be a facility capable of processing the collected recyclables into a form which can be utilized by manufacturers to make a new product. Third, new products made in whole or part from the recycled material must be manufactured and sold. While the end uses differ substantially for different plastics, there are some similarities in collection and processing which can usefully be discussed in a generic fashion. The first step in recycling, obviously, is to gather together the materials to be recycled. Here there are three main approaches (1) go out Plastics recycling in the United States got its start with the recycling of PET beverage bottles in states with deposit legislation. The 5 or 100 container deposit proved to be a sufficient incentive to get consumers to bring in 90 or more of the covered...

Effluent Recycling Pump

York used this value to design a large 10-mgd plant (1577 m3 hr) with five, parallel, fluidized-bed reactors at the Bay Park Wastewater Treatment Plant in Nassau County, New York (Jeris, Owens, and Flood 1981). These five reactors with a combined volume of 1000 m3 operated at an up-flow rate of 37 m hr and a recycling ratio of 4.6. A PSA oxygen generator provided 6 tn day of oxygen (5443 kg day). The plant had various operating difficulties controlling microbial growth was the most problematic. The plant was shut down in 1991.

12415 Carpet recycling

In the past several years, interest in the recycling of carpeting has grown substantially. Most efforts have focused on commercial carpeting. It is estimated that about 1.7 million tons of waste carpet are landfilled in the United States each year, most of it during construction or remodeling of office space. Carpet is typically formed by bonding a face fiber onto a backing fiber, most commonly using a styrene-butadiene adhesive which incorporates fillers such as calcium carbonate. The face fibers are generally nylon, polypropylene, polyester, wool, or acrylic. The backing is usually polypropylene, PVC, nylon, or jute. In addition to the complexity of the structures themselves, used carpet is generally heavily contaminated with dirt, staples, food, and other materials.143 Many efforts to recycle carpeting have focused on nylon carpet, which makes up about two-thirds of the face fiber market, particularly on nylon 6, because of the ease of chemical depolymerization of this material...

Reuse Recycling and Resource Recovery

Finding new sources of energy and materials is becoming increasingly difficult. Concurrently, we are finding it more and more difficult to locate solid waste disposal sites, and the cost of disposal is escalating exponentially. As a result, society's interest in reuse, recycling, and recovery of materials from refuse has grown. Recycling is the collection of a product by the public and the return of this material to the industrial sector. This is very different from reuse, where the materials do not return for remanufacturing. Examples of recycling are the collection of newspapers and aluminum cans by individuals and their collection and eventual return to paper manufacturers or aluminum companies. The recycling process requires the participation of the public, since the public must perform the separation step. Recovery differs from recycling in that the waste is collected as mixed refuse, and then the materials are removed by various processing steps. For example, refuse can be...


Reuse and recycling (waste recovery) can provide a cost-effective waste management approach. This technique can help reduce costs for raw materials and waste disposal and possibly provide income from a salable waste. However, waste recovery should be considered in conjunction with source control options. Waste reuse and recycling entail one or a combination of the following options

Recycling and Reuse

Recycling techniques allow reuse of waste materials for beneficial purposes. A recycled material is used, reused, or reclaimed 40 CFR 261.1 (c)(7) . Recycling through use or reuse involves returning waste material to the original process as a substitute for an input material, or to another process as an input material. Recycling through reclamation involves processing a waste for recovery of a valuable material or for regeneration. Recycling can help eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs, and provide income from saleable waste. Recycling is the second option in the pollution prevention hierarchy and should be considered only when all source reduction options have been investigated and implemented. Recycling options are listed in the following order It is important to note that recycling can increase a generator's risk or liability as a result of the associated material handling and management. Recycling effectiveness depends upon the ability to separate recoverable...

Pollution Control and Resource Recovery

The increasing cost of waste disposal has a great impact on process cost and should be considered in selecting cleaning processes. Treatment of waste within the plant should be considered to reduce cost, reduce liability, permit reuse of the raw material, and improve process control. A good example of closed-loop recycling is the distillation purification of vapor degreasing solvent. The federal EPA has established compliance guidelines, but state and local regulations are often more stringent. For more information, see the article Environmental Regulation of Surface Engineering in this Volume.

Safety and Environmental Concerns

Environmental regulations continue to affect the direction of cleaner development and cleaner use. Three major issues confront cleaner formulators reducing or eliminating phosphate effluent reducing the aquatic toxicity and increasing the biodegradability of cleaners and recycling of cleaners to extend bath life and therefore reduce cleaner dump frequencies and their associated costs. These regulation-driven issues are being approached in a number of ways. For instance, the reduction of phosphate salt use is being addressed by partial or complete replacement of phosphate salts (e.g., with polyacrylic-acid-base polymers). These polymers provide good hard water control and are easy to waste treat. The pursuit of lowering aquatic toxicity and increasing biodegradability of alkaline cleaners is being accomplished by reformulating with biodegradable surfactants. Recycling of cleaners includes the use of ultrafiltration to remove dispersed oil, thereby extending bath life and decreasing the...

Regulations And Definitions

Pollution prevention, as defined under the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, means source reduction and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through (1) increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources or (2) protection of natural resources by conservation. Under the Pollution Prevention Act, recycling, energy recovery, treatment, and disposal are not included within the definition of pollution prevention. Practices commonly described as in-process recycling may qualify as pollution prevention. Recycling conducted in an environmentally sound manner shares many of the advantages of pollution prevention it can reduce the need for treatment or disposal and conserve energy and resources. Pollution prevention (or source reduction) is an agency's first priority in the environmental management hierarchy for reducing risks to human health and the environment from pollution. This hierarchy includes (1) prevention, (2) recycling,...

Table 311 Definitions Of Pollution Prevention Terms

Pollution and pollutants refer to all nonproduct output, irrespective of any recycling or treatment that may prevent or mitigate releases to the environment (includes all media). Waste minimization initially included both treating waste to minimize its volume or toxicity and preventing the generation of waste at the source. The distinction between treatment and prevention became important because some advocates of decreased waste generation believed that an emphasis on waste minimization would deflect resources away from prevention towards treatment. In the current RCRA biennial report, waste minimization refers to source reduction and recycling activities and now excludes treatment and energy recovery. Source reduction is defined in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 as any practice which (1) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling,...

Source Reduction versus Discharge Reduction

The EPA has taken a strong position on pollution prevention by regarding source reduction as the only true pollution prevention activity and treating recycling as an option. Industry's position prior to the act (and effectively unchanged since) was to reduce the discharge of pollutant waste into the environment in the most cost-effective manner. This objective is achieved in some cases by source reduction, in others by recycling, in others by treatment and disposal, and usually in a combination of these methods. For this reason, this handbook examines all options in the pollution prevention hierarchy. Traditionally, regulations change, with more stringent controls enacted over time. Therefore, source reduction and perhaps recycling and reuse (instead of treatment or disposal) may become more economically attractive in the future.

Multiple Cell Circuits

The concentrate stream from the rougher is fed to the cleaner bank whose function is to improve its grade. Finally, it may be necessary further to upgrade the cleaner concentrate by sending it to a recleaner bank. The circuit is completed by internal recycling. The final product of the circuit is the cleaner (rec-leaner) concentrate and the scavenger tailings.

Gassolid Catalytic Reactions

In industrial applications of kinetics, an understanding of the mechanisms of chemical reactions is essential. This is helpful in establishing the optimum operating conditions in relation to parameters such as temperature, pressure, feed composition, space velocity, and the extent of recycling and conversion. Yang and Hougen 7 have established procedures in planning and correlating experimental data for gaseous reactions catalyzed by solids. They provided methods for eliminating, minimizing, or evaluating the temperatures and concentration gradients in gas films and catalyst pellets. Hougen and Watson 8 have developed rate equations for various mechanisms that may occur in gaseous reactions when catalyzed by solid surfaces. The following illustrates a gas-solid catalytic reaction

Table 333 Operationsbased Pollution Prevention Strategies

Due to the cost associated with purchasing virgin solvents and the subsequent disposal of solvent waste, onsite recycling is a favorable option. Recycling back to the generating process is favored for solvents used in large volumes in one or more processes. Some companies have developed ingenious techniques for recycling waste streams that greatly reduced water consumption and waste regeneration. At a refinery, hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater and steam condensate are first reused as washwater in compressor aftercoolers to prevent salt buildup. The washwater is then pumped to a fluid catalytic cracker column to absorb ammonium salts from the vapor. The washwater, now laden with phenol, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia, is pumped to a crude column vapor line, where organics extract the phenol from the wastewater. This step reduces the organic load to the downstream end-of-pipe wastewater treatment process which includes steam stripping and a biological system (Yen 1994).

Table 335 Example Checklist Of Pollution Reduction Methods

Recycling, in-process or external Reuse or alternative use of the waste or chemical Change in sources from batch operations (for example, heel reuse, change in bottom design of vessel, vapor space controls, dead-space controls) Installation of isolation or containment systems Installation of rework systems for treating off-spec materials Change in practices for managing residuals (consolidation,

Dissolved Air Flotation

The efficiency with which air bubbles attach themselves to fine particles is generally considerably improved if the bubbles themselves are very small. In dissolved air flotation, described in detail by Gochin(48) and by Zabel(49), the suspension is saturated with air under pressure before being introduced through a nozzle into the flotation chamber. Because shear rates are much lower than they are in dispersed-air flotation, flocculated suspensions may be processed without deflocculation occurring. If the flocs are very weak, however, they may be broken down in the nozzle, and it may then be desirable to avoid passing the suspension through the high-pressure system by recycling part of the effluent from the flotation cell. However, in this case higher pressures will be needed in order to maintain the same ratio of released air to suspension.

16 Environmental Applications

Materials have been developed mainly for structural, electronic, thermal, or other applications without much consideration of disposal or recycling problems. It is now recognized that such considerations must be included during the design and development of materials rather than after the materials have been developed.

Material Life Extension

Recycling is the reformation or reprocessing of a recovered material. The EPA defines recycling as the series of activities, including collection, separation, and processing, by which products or other materials are recovered from or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products other than fuel (U.S. EPA 1991a). Recycled material can follow two major pathways closed loop and open loop. In closed-loop systems, recovered material and products are suitable substitutes for virgin material. In theory a closed-loop model can operate for an extended period of time without virgin material. Of course, energy, and in some cases process material, is required for each recycling. Solvents and other industrial process ingredients are the most common materials recycled in a closed loop. Open-loop recycling occurs when the recovered material is recycled one or more times before disposal. Most postconsumer material is recycled in...

172 Minerals Industries

Many of the minerals applications employ some type of heat recovery in the form of air preheating to improve energy efficiency. However, the heat recovery typically significantly increases NOx emissions. Many of the minerals applications have dusty raw feed materials and require some type of particulate control system in the flue gas exhaust to minimize particulate emissions. Also, the incoming raw materials may contain contaminants such as niter (containing nitrogen), in glass production that can exacerbate NOx emissions. While recycling of used glass (referred to as cullet) is practiced in some applications, there is generally must less recycling in the minerals industry than in the metals industry. However, both industries share the problem of high NOx emissions due to the high processing temperatures. The minerals industry is considered in more detail in Chap. 14.

174 Waste Incineration

However, the waste usually has a very low heating value, hence the need for supplemental fuel. Incineration is a more complicated and dynamic process compared to other industrial combustion processes by nature of the variability of the feed material. The waste may be very wet after a rain storm which may put a huge extra heat load on the incinerator. In some locations where waste materials are separated for recycling, the waste actually fed into the incinerator may have a much higher heating value compared to that of other incinerators where there is no separation of the waste. Another complicating factor with incinerators is that the end product, e.g., the noncombustible waste, must also be disposed of which means that one of the goals of most incineration processes is to produce minimal waste output. Because of the waste material variability, other pollutants may be generated that are not normally associated with industrial combustion processes. An example is...

Integrated Process Development

For waste that is unavoidable, this goal involves integrating recovery or waste destruction into the process. In this procedure, the chemical engineer must evaluate the type and quality of the starting materials, the optimal recycling options, and improved treatment or elimination of process waste as a whole at the development stage. Thus for each process, optimum chemical and physical conditions must first be established in the laboratory and then at the pilot plant. The engineer must establish process balances and develop technologies for the optimal treatment of waste streams.

Economic Considerations

Used, due consideration must also be paid to the costs of all stages of the separation procedure. Such consideration should cover not only the basic costs of the chemicals employed, but also all costs associated with disposal and or recycling of those chemicals after use. Some affinity procedures may involve specific elu-ents (e.g. enzyme co-factors) whose expense is greater than that of the simple strategies of changes in pH, ionic strength or dielectric constant used to elute many adsorbates. These economic considerations become of much greater importance in the design of process-scale procedures and are often overlooked at the laboratory scale.

Impurities and Catalyst Loss

Using heterogeneous rather than homogeneous catalysts can also reduce waste from catalyst loss. Homogeneous catalysts can be difficult to separate and recycle, and this difficulty leads to waste. Heterogeneous catalysts are more common, but they degrade and need replacement. If contaminants in the feed material or recycling shortens the catalyst life, extra separation to remove those contaminants before they enter the reactor might be justified. If the catalyst is sensitive to extreme conditions such as high temperature, the following measures can help avoid local hot spots and extend the catalyst life Fluid-bed catalytic reactors tend to lose the catalyst through attrition of the solid particles generating fines which are then lost. More effective separation and recycling of fines reduce catalyst waste to a point. Improving the mechanical strength of the catalyst is probably the best solution in the long run.

Step 3define Environmental Objectives

Environmental objectives include a statement supporting government regulations and company policy, a list of specific goals for emissions and discharges or reduction of emissions and discharges, and other project-specific objectives. These objectives focus preferentially on source reduction and recycling rather than waste treatment.

Process Modifications

This section describes several practical ideas and options for preventing polluting generation. When these options are not practical, a second technique is used recycling waste products back to the process. This section is not an exhaustive compilation of all possibilities. This information is intended to serve as a basis for discussion and brainstorming. Each organization must evaluate the suitability of these and other options for their own needs and circumstances.

232 Assembly sequence diagrams

In turn, the choice of assembly sequence and the identification of potential subassemblies can affect or be affected by product testing options, market responsiveness and factory floor layout (Baldwin et al., 1991), as well as engineering issues such as ease of servicing or ease of recycling. However, there are extensive implications for the successful generation of assembly sequences during the early stages of the design process. Cycle times can be reduced and rework is decreased (Barnes et al., 1997).

Leachate Disposal Systems

Leachate can be treated by recycling, onsite treatment, or discharge to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Recycling leachate involves reapplying collected leachate at or near the top of the landfill surface, thus providing additional contact between leachate and landfill microbes. Recycling can reduce BOD and COD and increase pH with subsequent reduction in heavy metals concentrations. Furthermore, leachate recycling evens the flow of leachate that is removed from the landfill and can enhance the stabilization of the landfill (O'Leary and Walsh, 1991c). Onsite treatment can involve physical, chemical, or biological treatment processes. However, leachate from recently deposited waste is a high-strength wastewater. Furthermore, leachate characteristics change dramatically

Additional Onsite Recovery

Recycling alternatives can be accomplished either on-site or off-site and may depend on a company's staffing or economic constraints. On-site recycling alternatives result in less waste leaving a facility. The disadvantages of on-site recycling lie in the capital outlay for recycling equipment, the need for operator training, and additional operating costs. In some cases, the waste generated does not warrant the installation costs for in-plant recycling systems. However, since on-site alternatives do not involve transportation of waste materials and the resulting liabilities, they are preferred over off-site alternatives.

Aluminum And Tin Cans

Aluminum cans are one of the most common items recovered through municipal and commercial recycling programs because they are easily identified by residents and employers. They also provide higher revenues than other recyclable materials. The recycling of used beverage cans (UBCs) not only saves valuable landfill space but also minimizes energy consumption during the manufacturing of aluminum products. Manufacturing new aluminum cans from UBCs uses 95 less energy than producing them from virgin materials. A successful aluminum recycling program must have interaction between various entities including those involved with collection, sorting and processing, reclamation, and reuse. Three generator sectors from which aluminum beverage containers can be recovered are residential house-

Pollution Prevention

Further Reading American Society of Testing and Materials, Standard Guide for Industrial Source Reduction, draft copy dated June 16, 1992. American Society of Testing and Materials, Pollution Prevention, Reuse, Recycling and Environmental Efficiency, June, 1992. California Department of Health Services, Economic Implications of Waste Reduction, Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes The Fourth Biennial Report, California, 1988. Citizen's Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste, Reduction of Hazardous Waste The Only Serious Management Option, Falls Church, CCHW, 1986. Congress of the United States. Office of Technology Assessment, Serious Reduction of Hazardous Waste For Pollution Prevention and Industrial Efficiency, Washington, D.C., GPO, 1986. Friedlander, S., Pollution Prevention Implications for Engineering Design, Research, and Education, Environment, May 1989, p. 10. Theodore, L. and Y. McGuinn, Pollution Prevention, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992. Theodore, L....

Compliance with applicable regulations 4172

The standard requires a process to ensure compliance with all applicable government safety and environmental regulations including those concerning storage, handling, recycling, eliminating, or disposing of materials. Environmental claims made by the automakers to customers regarding conservation of natural resources, recycling, etc. may be compromised if environmental inspections of suppliers show disregard for such regulations.

Implications for Incineration and Energy Recovery

The effect of recycling programs on the heat value of MSW is not well documented. Numerous attempts have been made to project the impact of recycling based on the measured heat values of individual MSW components (for example, see Camp Dresser & McKee 1992a ). Little reliable data exist, however, that document the effect of known levels of recycling on the waste received at operating combustion facilities. A reasonable assumption is that recycling materials with below-average heat values raises the heat value of the remaining waste, while recycling materials with above-average heat values reduces the heat value of the remaining waste. The removal of recyclable metal and glass containers increases heat value (and reduces ash content), while the recovery of plastics for recycling reduces heat value. The removal of paper for recycling also reduces heat value. Because recycled paper has a low moisture content, its heat value is 30 to 40 higher than that of MSW as a whole. The increase...

Post Detection Eluent Processing

After the eluent passes through the detector, it is often directed to a waste container. The waste container should be properly labelled for eventual disposable by environmentally acceptable means. If isocratic chro-matography is being performed, a mobile-phase recycling device can be added after the detector. While the instrument is running and no injections are being made or during periods of the separation when no peaks are being eluted, the solvent-recycling device will direct clean mobile phase back to the mobilephase reservoir.

Collection Of Pollutants

Recycling of exhaust gases is one means of control. Although automobiles could not meet 1990 exhaust emission standards only by recycling exhaust and blow-by gases, this method proved a valuable start to automobile emission controls. Many stationary industries recycle exhaust gases, usually CO and volatile organic compounds, as fuel for the process, since even CO releases heat when burned to CO2.

Depressurization Valve

To the recycling line pressure (e.g. 4.5 MPa) and to control the flow rate of the eluent. Depressurization through the valve is almost adiabatic so that it is accompanied by an intense cooling and the fluid at the outlet of the valve is not gaseous but is a gasliquid mixture (e.g. for carbon dioxide, at 4.5 MPa and 10 C). If the outlet pressure were atmospheric, the physical state of the carbon dioxide would not be a gas-liquid equilibrium but a gas-solid equilibrium (triple point pressure is 0.5 MPa) and the solid would cause random plugging of the tubes. Since the valve is placed at the column outlet, special attention must be given to its design so that it does not include dead volumes that would cause the remixing of the purified fractions.

Microorganism Concentration

Figure 7.25.7 shows the relationship between the MLSS concentration, SVI, and the recycling ratio (R Q). The amount of recycled flow depends largely on the settling characteristics of the MLSS. For example, if the SVI value is 400 and the required MLSS concentration is 2000 mg l, a recycling ratio of about 3.5 is required. On the other hand, if the SVI is 50, the recycling ratio required is about 0.2. This relationship demonstrates that the settling characteristics of the formed biological solids are important to the successful operation of the activated-sludge process. For municipal wastewater, environmental engineers use an SVI value of approximately 150 and a MLSS concentration of 2000 mg l for design. To achieve the required MLSS concentration in the contactor they use a recycling ratio of about 0.5.

Component Composition of MSW

Table 10.3.1 lists the representative component composition for MSW disposed in the United States and adjacent portions of Canada and shows ranges for individual components. Materials diverted from the waste stream for recycling or composting are not included. The table is based on the results of twenty-two field studies in eleven states plus the Canadian province of British Columbia. The ranges shown in the table are annual values for county-sized areas. Seasonal values may be outside these ranges, especially in individual municipalities.

Separation at the Source

Kitchen designers and suppliers of kitchen equipment will need to become more sensitive to the needs of recycling. Major manufacturers of kitchen equipment should make sorting drawers, lazy Susan sorting bins, and tilt-out bins as standard kitchen equipment. Kitchen designers should keep in mind small convenience items, such as automatic label scrapers, trash chutes, and can flatteners to make recycling more convenient. The more finely household waste is separated, the greater its contribution to recycling. Figure 10.6.1 shows an approach where household waste is separated into four containers. Container 4 would receive all other waste, including plastic, metal, ceramic, textile, and rubber items. (Later, a fifth container could be added for recyclable plastics.) The contents of this container can be considered nonrecyclable and sent to a landfill or a recycling plant for further separation. The contents of this container would represent about 12 of the total MSW.

Purposes of Solid Waste Characterization

The potential for recycling or composting portions of the waste stream. The effectiveness of waste reduction programs, recycling programs, or bans on the disposal of certain materials. Potential sources of environmental pollution in the waste. The purposes of a waste characterization program determine the design of it. If all waste is to be landfilled, the characterization program should focus on the quantity of waste, its density, and its potential for compaction. The composition of the waste and its chemical characteristics are relatively unimportant. If all waste is to be incinerated, the critical parameters are quantity, heat value, and the percentage of combustible material in the waste. If recycling and composting are planned or underway, a composition study can identify the materials targeted for recovery, estimate their abundance in the waste, and monitor compliance with source separation requirements.

12413Energy from mixed plastics

As mentioned earlier, another approach to recycling of mixed plastics is to use thermal processing to convert the plastics to a mixture of gases and liquids which can serve as a fuel or to use the plastics in unprocessed form as a fuel source. As noted, many do not consider these applications to be true recycling, while others argue that the replacement of fossil fuels with waste plastics does generate value from the plastic materials and so should be counted. Processes designed to use thermal treatment to decompose the plastics into liquid and or gaseous materials have often had mixed technical and economic success. For example, BASF planned to build a 661-million-lb year facility for recycling mixed plastic wastes into hydrocarbon feedstocks, but eventually canceled the plans.135

513 Reference material

Water reclaim in the microelectronics industry. IWRR1, Proc. 1 st Internal Conference on Industrial Water Recycling and Reuse, Cranficld University, 24 November, p. 5. Craig, G. (1999). The Eraring experience four years on. IQPC Conference on Water Recycling and Effluent Re-use, London, 26-2 7 April, p. 1 8. Jefferson, B., Bell, C. and Judd, S. (2002). Water recycling in the microprocessor industry. 3rd IWA World Water Congress - integrated management - key to sustainable water, Workshop Eco effective approaches to sustainable water use in water intensive industries, Melbourne, Australia, 7-12 April. Lewis, R. (2002). Personal communication. Shimono, T. (1999). The cost reducing effect by wastewater treatment and recycling system with membrane separation technology. Company literature. Mitsubishi Rayon Co. Ltd, 6-41, Konan 1-Chrome, Minatoku, Tokyo, Japan. Wakeling, A. (1999a). The textile industry. Proc. 1st Internal Conference on Industrial Water Recycling and...

Economics of Prep SFC

Figure 11 shows a cost breakdown of a typical industrial separation using pure carbon dioxide and no modifier. The total purification cost for this example is about US 100 per kilogram injected. The range for such a case is US 20-200 per kilogram. One can see that the capital outlay is half of the total cost while the eluent cost (carbon dioxide) is negligible (2 ). The high capital cost is a consequence of working at high pressure and the low cost of the eluent is a consequence of the total on-line recycling of a cheap solvent. about US 280 per kilogram injected. The range for such a case is US 40-400 per kilogram. By comparison with the previous example, the capital cost is slightly higher (an additional pump and bigger traps) and the recycling of the modifier represents 15-30 of the total purification cost. The other costs are similar. The structure of these cost breakdowns can be compared with Prep-HPLC where the cost of the solvent losses and solvent recycling can represent 60 of...

Selecting Treatment Technologies

Before implementing any in-plant controls or pretreatment alternatives, the industry should first explore ways to reduce production of specific pollutants and then examine the feasibility of recycling or reusing the wastewater generated during production. For example, the concentrated solution obtained from cleanup operations can be recycled as part of the starting materials for the next production run. Additional steps for reducing wastewater requiring treatment include good housekeeping practices spill control measures, such as spill containment enclosures and drip trays around tanks and eliminating wet floor areas.

Nitrifying Nitrogen Removal Systems

The demand and applications for nitrogen removal from wastewater have steadily increased. For example, waste-water treatment plants discharging directly to aquifers are required to remove nitrates to limit drinking water contamination. A large amount of full-scale experience is available in nitrifying denitrifying systems. This section reviews nitrogen removal systems in two categories systems that do and do not use internal recycling streams. It also provides flow schemes.

511 NEC Semiconductors microelectronics wastewater reclamation UK

NEC Semiconductors (UK) Ltd, Livingston, was formed in 1982 as part of the NEC Corporation and was originally assigned for assembly and testing before expanding into manufacture. The fabrication facility produces several millions chips per month and has the largest operational clean room floor area in Europe (dated 1999). NEC incorporates reclamation and reuse within its business strategy achieving ISO 14001 accreditation in December 1991. Included in the strategy is both reduced chemical consumption and waste recycling. For instance, reduction in machine bath volume and photo-resist dispensing volumes generated significant savings in hydrofluoric acid ( 40 000 ( 62 040)). Materials such as cardboard, paper, plastics, acids and reject silicon wafers are also recycled. For instance, the waste silicon is used in aluminium production acting as a strengthening agent for the final product. The initial driver for water recycling was to ensure sufficient water resources at facilities where...

12410Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymers ABS

Recycling of ABS is primarily focused on appliances. British Telecommunications PLC recovers and recycles about 2.5 million telephones every year. About 300,000 are refurbished for reuse, and the remainder are recycled. The recovered ABS from the telephone housing is typically used in molded products such as printer ribbon cassettes and car wheel trims.113 Similarly, AT& T Bell Laboratories recovers ABS Hewlett-Packard recycles computer equipment, using some of the recovered ABS in the manufacture of printers, blended with virgin ABS. The recycled content in the printer cases is reported to be at least 25 .116 HM Gesellschaft f r Wertstoff-Recycling recovers ABS from vacuum cleaners, reporting recovery of more than 25 of the weight as ABS with better than 99 purity, and properties comparable to impact-resistant polystyrene.93

Absence or Reduced Use of Solvent

When a modifier has to be mixed with the supercritical main eluent (carbon dioxide), some, but not all, of these advantages are lost. The modifier is added to the eluent concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 25 (more often 1-5 ). Thus, only a fraction of the eluent is not recycled on-line which means there is reduced solvent storage and a smaller evaporation plant than for Prep-HPLC. Moreover, the modifier used will very often be a single solvent (not a mixture) which simplifies its evaporation and recycling. The nature of modifiers most often used (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol) means that the toxicity problem of solvent traces left in the final product is reduced. Finally, the economic advantage over Prep-HPLC is not completely lost because of the reduced quantity of solvent and its ease of recycling.

Hydrolysisadsorption Process

PCT plants are not subject to upsets and efficiency losses from toxic wastes, and they use many recycling methods to recover some of the chemical treatment agents. Their land requirements are also less, and phosphorus removal is part of their total treatment performance. Recycling calcium in the sludge can reduce the sludge disposal problems associated with the large quantities of chemicals. Heavy metals are also precipitated into the lime sludge. Wastewater treatment facilities can expand their plant size by adding modular units such as carbon columns or reactor-clarifiers.

Implications for Recovery of Useful Materials

Almost all solid waste materials can be recycled in some way if people are willing to devote enough time and money to the recycling effort. Because time and money are always limited, distinctions must be drawn between materials that are more and less difficult to recycle. Table 10.5.1 shows the compostable, combustible, and recyclable fractions of MSW. The materials listed as recyclable are those for which large-scale markets exist if the local recycling industry is well developed. The list of recyclable materials is different in different areas.

1 Plastic Usage In Automotive Applications

Roughly 75 of a cars that have reached the end of their useful life, which typically runs 10 to 15 years, can be profitably recycled in the form of resalable parts and scrap metals (1). Each year, an estimated 11 million vehicles are scrapped in the United States, generating some 2.5 billion pounds of discarded automotive plastics (2). Globally, approximately 2.2 million tons per year of plastics in automotive shredder residue goes to landfills (3). Efficiently processing the approximately 250 pounds of more than 20 types of plastics is one of the biggest problems in recycling. While some automotive plastic parts such as tail lamps, fenders, bumper covers, wheel covers, and interior trim are reused, the majority of automotive plastics are landfilled.

Optimization of Separation Conditions

The optimization of PLC is not a simple task since many parameters have to be taken into account kinetics (column efficiency and column design in terms of dp and L), thermodynamics (choice of the chromatographic system, temperature, degree of column overloading, etc.) and economics. The necessity to take into account economic aspects is important since the most favourable conditions in terms of purification cost do not necessarily correspond to the best chromatographic conditions in terms of quality of separation. Indeed, a better chromatographic mobile phase providing more selectivity may turn out to be more expensive to buy or to recycle (mobile phase recycling is often essential to keep purification costs low). This means that such parameters as the heat of vaporization of the mobile phase and its cost have to be considered. The mobile phase viscosity is also very important since it controls not only the velocity of the eluent at a given operating pressure (and thus the time...

Membrane Electrodialysis

Electrodialysis is widely applied in environmental protection (depolluting and recycling of chemicals), in bio-industries (food, pharmacy and biotechnology) and in the treatment of drinking water. Some of these new applications have led to substantial improvements in membrane quality. For instance, special membranes with low permeability to the divalent ions in respect to the monovalent ones, membranes with very low permeability to hydroxyl ions or very low permeability to protons, are currently produced.

Electrodialysis in Waste Water Treatment

Treatment of metal ion-contaminated rinse waters produced in electroplating operations is an important application of electrodialysis. Complete recycling of the water and the metal ions can be achieved in favourable cases. A disadvantage, however, is that in electrodialysis only ions can be removed from a feed stream. Uncharged components that are also present in the rinse waters cannot be recovered.

Definition of Solid Waste

Materials are considered recycled if they are recycled or accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling. However, materials are considered solid waste if they are used in a manner constituting disposal, burned for energy recovery, reclaimed, or accumulated speculatively. Table 11.1.1 presents various classes of materials and general situations in which they would be considered solid wastes.

Implications For Solid Waste Management

This section addresses several aspects of the relationship between the characteristics of solid waste and the methods used to manage it. Implications for waste reduction, recycling, composting, incineration, and landfilling are included, as well as general implications for solid waste management as a whole.

Flash Drying Versus Other Processes

Composting sewage sludge is an innovation because no commercial installations exist in which sewage solids are composted alone. The process has potential both ecologically and economically but requires using shredded municipal refuse. When sludge is composted alone, without shredded refuse, successful treatment requires recycling the drier, already composted, sewage solids with the raw, wetter, dewatered solids, such as occurs in the second step of the flash-drying method. This recycling produces a drier, more porous sludge, which is necessary for good composting.

Aerobic Fluidized Bed Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

Figure 7.35.11 shows the Celgene fluidized-bed reactor. This reactor suspends carbon particles with the immobilized biomass in an upflow of 29 m hr. This flow gives a 35-50 bed expansion (measured with a reflective IR-level detector). The time per pass is 8 min. With a total wastewater residence time of 400 min, the recycling ratio is 50. The reactor injects oxygen from a PSA unit into the reactor recycling loop. A reactor effluent of DO 35 ppm controls oxygen addition. Particles with excess biomass rise to the top of the reactor. Here, the biomass is knocked off with a slowly rotating peddle and carried with the effluent to the clarifier.

535 The waste hierarchy

The government's strategy for waste management promotes the 'waste hierarchy' as a guiding principle in the development of a more sustainable waste management system. Following the hierarchy is also a cost-effective and environmentally responsible approach to managing waste. The hierarchy ranks methods of waste management, defining elimination and reduction as the most desirable options followed by reuse, then recovery (through recycling, composting or energy recovery) and finally the least desirable option, disposal. Examples are returnable bottles and reusable transit packaging. Involves finding beneficial uses for waste such as recovering energy by burning it recycling it to produce a useable product or composting to create products such as soil conditioners and growing media for plants. The destruction, detoxification or neutralisation of wastes into less harmful substances.

335 Zincair Battery Battery

Zinc-air batteries have a gaseous positive electrode of oxygen and a sacrificial negative electrode of metallic zinc. The practical zinc-air battery is only mechanically rechargeable by replacing the discharged product, zinc hydroxide, with fresh zinc electrodes. The discharged electrode and the potassium hydroxide electrolyte are sent to a recycling facility. In a way, the zinc-air battery is analogous to a fuel cell, with the fuel being the zinc metal. A module of zinc air batteries tested in German Mercedes Benz postal vans had a specific energy of200 Wh kg, but only a modest specific power of 100 W kg at 80 depth-of-discharge (see Sections 3.4 and 3.5 for definitions of depth-of-discharge and specific power). With present-day technology, the range of zinc-air batteries can be between 300 to 600 km between recharges.

Equivalent Spherical Volumes

One reason for poor transport efficiency was shown experimentaly by Williams and Bruce65 to be that fiat cuttings tend to recycle locally as shown in Figure 5-51. This recycling action is presumed to be caused by the parabolic shape of the laminar velocity profile, which subjects a flat cutting to unequal

Distributed Distillation

Distributed distillation is a separation technique that minimizes the lost work due to mixing and recycling of fluids within a column. The energy consumption can be reduced by making a separation between the most volatile and least volatile components with the rest of the components distributed between the top and bottom. An easy separation between components

Suggested Treatment System

A schematic flow diagram for a suggested laundromat waste treatment system is shown in Figure 8.1.2. After screening lint, waste is stored in a holding tank to equalize flow and provide sufficient volume for operating the treatment system during normal daytime hours. A pump can deliver waste to the chemical mixing tank where the appropriate chemicals are added. A settling tank removes the bulk of precipitated solids prior to diatomaceous earth filtration. A pump is required to provide pressure for filtration in the diatomaceous earth filter. Recycling to the chemical mixing tank would be required during the filter precoat operation.

Reverse Osmosis Description

Exchangeable ion bonded to the resin with a weak ionic bond. Ion exchange depends upon the electrochemical potential of the ion to be recovered versus that of the exchange ion it also depends upon the concentration of the ions in the solution. After a critical relative concentration of recoverable ion to exchanged ion in the solution is exceeded, the exchanged resin is said to be spent. Spent resin is usually recharged by exposure to a concentrated solution of the original exchange ion, causing a reverse exchange. This results in regenerated resin and a concentrated solution of the removed ion, which can be further processed for recovery and reuse. This process is used to remove toxic metal ions from solution to recover concentrated metal for recycling. The residuals include spent resins and spent regenerants such as acid, caustic, or brine.

962Process Modification

Another process modification strategy for reducing particulate emissions is to capture the particles inside the combustion system for recycling back into the process. One example is a fluidized-bed reactor where the majority of the particles are deliberately recirculated back into the process. This not only reduces the load on any downstream post-treatment equipment for removing particulates, but it also reduces raw materials costs and enhances process economics. The specifics of the application will dictate the viability of this option.

184Pathogen Reduction

In the operation of public sewage treatment systems, enormous amounts of solid residues are produced. In the U.S. alone the sewage sludge amounts to six millions tons a year. Typical methods of disposal are by incineration, burial at sea, placement in landfills, and application to cropland. In all of these there is some hazard due to pathogens -disease-causing organisms such a parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Experimental tests of pathogen reduction by cobalt-60 or cesium-137 gamma irradiation have been made in Germany and in the U.S. The program in the U.S. was part of the Department of Energy's studies of beneficial uses of fission product wastes, and was carried out at Sandia Laboratories and the University of New Mexico. Tests of the effectiveness of radiation were made, and the treated sludge was found to be suitable as a feed supplement for livestock, with favorable economics. However, no use of those results was made in the U.S. Apparently, the only large-scale...

559 Producer or shared responsibility

There is an example of a shared approach in the UK. The Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations 199710 requires each player to carry a certain percentage of the cost of collecting and recycling the wastes. Companies have to obtain Packaging Recovery Notes (PRNs) to cover their obligated packaging wastes. However, companies having a turnover less than 2 million or handling less than 50 tonnes of packaging per year are exempt. It is interesting that of all the European Union Member States only the UK has this 'shared' approach. A possible explanation is that it has proved quite complex to implement even though the format was agreed by a cross-section of UK industry. The complexity arises because of the attempt to include all parties in sharing the costs and prevent 'free riders'. The problem faced in Europe is to achieve an equitable balance between all the contributors within a complex legal system.

Environmental Health and Safety Considerations

Strict environmental regulations are being imposed on the plating industry worldwide. The major problem facing nickel platers is to prevent nickel and other metallic ions from entering the environment via plant effluents. The most widely used method of removing metallic elements from effluents is to precipitate nickel and other metals in sludges as hydroxides or sulfides. The solid waste is then disposed of in landfills. Because the number of landfill sites is limited, and because disposal of solid waste is expensive, the recovery of metallic elements by applying reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrotwinning, and other methods is economically appealing. Nickel producers accept nickel-containing sludges for recycling through smelters or special plants. The recovery of metallic elements is technically possible and will become important in the future. Environmental regulations vary from state to state. Platers need to become familiar with all applicable local regulations and comply with...

Mechanical Construction

Rolling element bearings are widely used, generally the roller type. Seals are either a packing or mechanical contact type. Packing and bearings are lubricated by a pressurized system. For the non-flooded, lubricated compressor a multiplunger pump, similar to the one used with reciprocating compressors, is used. Lubrication is directed from the lubricator to drilled passages in the compressor cylinder and heads. One teed is directed to each of the bearings. Other feeds meter lubrication onto the cylinder wall. As the vanes pass the oil injection openings, lubricant is spread around the cylinder walls to lubricate the vane tips and eventually the vanes themselves. The oil entering the gas stream is separated in the discharge line. Because of the high local heat, the lubricant may have broken down and, therefore, is not suitable for recycling.

164 Refusederived Fuel

Solid wastes affect public health, the environment, and also present an opportunity for reuse or recycling of the material. Managing this in an optimum way is sometimes called integrated solid waste management. A textbook on that subject (15) provides much more detail than can be furnished in this brief handbook discussion. That reference estimates that between 2500 and 7750 pounds of waste is generated per person

Recovery Of Chemical Additives

Figure 7.48.6 shows the performance of centrifuging for the selective recovery of calcium carbonate solids from a limed sewage sludge. When the economics of plant size and location warrant calcining and recycling, such recovery is readily made from limed sewage sludges, tertiary limed sludges for phosphate removal, water-softening lime sludges, and limed industrial sludges, frequently at efficiencies of 70 to 85 of the concentration of the calcium carbonate in the feed.

Coagulation Followed By Flotation

Recycling pressurization is used when the floc formed cannot be pressurized and large quantities of air must be dissolved. In this scheme (see Figure 7.34.18), the addition of coagulants and flocculants precedes the flotation step. A side stream of the clarified effluent is air-pressurized. When extended floc formation time is required, this method is particularly applicable. The pressurization components are less prone to solids build-up in this system.

Soluble Organics Removal

The activated-sludge process, developed in England in the early 1900s, is remarkably successful at removing soluble organics from wastewater (Junkins, Deeny, and Eckhoff 1983 Tchobanoglous and Burton 1991 Vesilind and Pierce 1982). In an air-sparged tank (see Section 7.25), live microorganisms rapidly adsorb, then slowly oxidize these organics to carbon dioxide and water. At the same time, these organisms reproduce. The process removes the microorganism sludge by settling, while digestion of adsorbed organics continues, which activates the sludge for recycling.

3Energy Source Battery

Among the available choices of portable energy sources, batteries have been the most popular choice of energy source for EVs since the beginning of research and development programs in these vehicles. The EVs and HEVs commercially available today use batteries as the electrical energy source. The various batteries are usually compared in terms of descriptors, such as specific energy, specific power, operating life, etc. Similar to specific energy, specific power is the power available per unit mass from the source. The operating life of a battery is the number of deep discharge cycles obtainable in its lifetime or the number of service years expected in a certain application. The desirable features of batteries for EV and HEV applications are high specific power, high specific energy, high charge acceptance rate for recharging and regenerative braking, and long calendar and cycle life. Additional technical issues include methods and designs to balance the battery segments or packs...

United States Solid Waste Legislation And Regulations

Resource Recovery Act, 1970 The Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 was amended by Public Law 95-512, the Resources Recovery Act of 1970. This act directed that the emphasis of the national solid-waste-management program should be shifted from disposal as its primary objective to that of recycling and reuse of recoverable materials in solid wastes or the conversion of wastes to energy. Conserve material and energy resources through waste recycling and recovery

1665 Partialrecycle dryers

The majority of drying operations depend on direct heating using a high flowrate of hot air and or combustion products which is passed once through or over the wet material and then exhausted to the atmosphere. A variation of this arrangement is the closed-loop system where the entire air or gas stream is confined and recycled after condensing out the vapour. Such a system is justified only where the vaporised liquid or gas has to be recovered for economic or environmental reasons. In addition to the once-through and the closed-loop systems, there is a third class of dryers which incorporates the partial-recycle mode of operation. In this system, a substantial proportion, typically 40-60 per cent, of the outlet air is returned to the dryer in order to minimise the heating requirements and the amount of effluent treatment required. Conveyor, flash-pneumatic conveying-, fluidised-bed, rotary, spray and tray types of direct dryers can all be designed for closed-loop or partial-recycle...

Concluding Remarks

With generations of research efforts, flotation has matured into a process of choice for many separation tasks, including mineral separation, bitumen extraction from tar sands, soil remediation, materials recycling, de-inking, de-oiling, de-colouring, biological species fractionation and industrial effluent detoxification in the form of either froth flotation or absorptive bubble separation. Both inventions and innovations have played an indispensable role in flotation development in an evolutionary, rather than a revolutionary, fashion. Although flotation practice has always been ahead of flotation science, the gaps

Colorado Springs Treatment Plant

Both the lime and the activated-carbon systems have recycling loops that use multiple-hearth furnaces to regenerate some of the chemicals used. The recycled lime was found to be more effective in raising the pH than fresh lime. The recycled lime dosage is 280 mg l, and the dosage for new lime is 325 mg l.

Basic Characterization Methods

Obtaining complete production data for every item discarded as solid waste is difficult. Although data on food sales are available, food sales bear little relation to the generation of food waste. Not only is most food not discarded, but significant quantities of water are added to or removed from many food items between purchase and discard. These factors vary from one area to another based on local food preferences and eating patterns. Material flows methodology cannot measure the generation of yard waste. Material flows methodology does not account for the addition of nonmanufactured materials to solid waste prior to discard, including water, soil, dust, pet droppings, and the contents of used disposable diapers. Some of the material categories used in material flows studies do not match the categories of materials targeted for recycling. For example, advertising inserts in newspapers are typically recycled with the newsprint, but in material flows studies the inserts are part of a...

Highlevel Radioactive Waste

Nuclear power by recycling recovered uranium and plutonium. The reprocessing of spent fuel, using the PUREX process developed in the United States, involves dissolution in large volumes of acid, liquid liquid extraction, chemical reduction, and precipitation (Lanham & Runiou 1949, Flagg 1961, Koch 1979). The highly radioactive waste produced from reprocessing is classified by the NRC as a highlevel radioactive waste or HLW in 10 CFR Part 72.

1651 Municipal Waste Incineration

Clarke 52 has written a good primer on MSW incineration. There has been a decided shift in preference away from landfilling and incineration with no energy recovery towards waste prevention, recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy (WTE) plants utilizing incineration for waste management. An example of a MSW incineration process is shown in Fig. 16.13. A photograph of an actual municipal waste incineration plant is shown in Fig. 16.14. Some of the important design factors for municipal incineration with energy recovery include

221 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Enrichment plants produces relatively small amounts of slightly radioactive material. The separation process, which brings the uranium-235 concentration from 0.7 wt to 3-4 , also has little waste. It does generate large amounts of depleted uranium (tails) at around 0.3 U-235. Depleted uranium is stored and could be used as fertile material for future breeder reactors. The fuel fabrication operation, involving the conversion of UF6 to UO2 and the manufacture of fuel assemblies, yields considerable waste in spite of recycling practices. Since U-235 has a shorter half-life than U-238, the slightly enriched fuel is more radioactive than natural uranium.

Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

However, it has become apparent that the properties of the underlying substrate are the key to obtaining high-performance silicon thin-film solar cells. That is, a high-quality silicon thin-film photoelectric layer can be obtained by suppressing the diffusion of impurities from below and using epitaxial deposition that exploits the characteristics of the underlying material, and evidently single-crystal silicon has become the optimal material for the substrate. Accordingly, this research has shifted toward recycling single-crystal silicon, and at present research is being actively performed into single-crystal silicon thin-film solar cells, primarily focusing on porous silicon delamination techniques 5 .

Selection of a Cutting or Grinding Fluid

Metal cutting or grinding fluid selection depends on an evaluation of a large number of interrelated factors. Some of the pertinent factors have nothing to do with Ihe particular metal cutting or grinding opera-lion in question, bul rather concern the ease of cleaning the part after production, the cost of recycling the fluid, the cost of fluid disposal, the possibility of adverse effects on operator health and safely, and ihe cost of Ihe fluid itself. Nevertheless, the technical criteria of the machining process must also underlie the choice of a particular metal cutting or grinding fluid. These criteria include the desired tolerances, tool life, surface finish, and energy consumption. Fluids must also be noncorrosive lo the equipment and to the part being machined.

Processing And Resource Recovery

Manual Component Separation The manual separation of solid-waste components can be accomplished at the source where solid wastes are generated, at a transfer station, at a centralized processing station, or at the disposal site. Manual sorting at the source of generation is the most positive way to achieve the recovery and reuse of materials. The number and types of components salvaged or sorted (e.g., cardboard and high-quality paper, metals, and wood) depend on the location, the opportunities for recycling, and the resale market. There has been an evolution in the solid waste industry to combine manual and automatic separation techniques to reduce overall costs and produce a cleaner product, especially for recyclable materials. Mechanical Volume Reduction Mechanical volume reduction is perhaps the most important factor in the development and operation of solid-waste-management systems. Vehicles equipped with compaction mechanisms are used for the collection of most industrial solid...

US Regulations

Environmental impairment from past disposal practices and from accidental releases or spills is covered by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund due to the provision for government funding of cleanups when no responsible parties can be identified. Both RCRA and CERCLA regulations specifically prohibit contamination of groundwater. Enforcement occurs at both the state and federal levels, as for effluent discharge violations. Fines and criminal penalties are assessed for both corporations and individuals. The liability issues arising out of these regulations and the increasing cost of waste treatment and disposal have dramatically altered the approach to waste management and are driving industry toward recovery, recycling, and waste minimization.

12411 Commingled plastics and plastic lumber

Most processes for recycling of commingled plastics depend on a predominance of polyolefin in the mix to serve as a matrix within which the other components are dispersed. One of the early processes was the Mitsubishi Reverzer, which was developed in Japan. This process used a short-time, high-temperature, high-shear machine which could handle up to 50 filler. The plastics were first softened in a hopper and then mixed in an extruder. Products were formed in a variety of shapes by flow molding, extrusion, or compression molding. However, the equipment was never successfully marketed.117 The Klobbie process, developed in the Netherlands in the 1970s, consisted of an extruder The ET 1 system developed by Advanced Recycling Technology of Brakel, Belgium, is a more modern variant of the Klobbie process, and it has been used by a number of operations in several different countries. The feed must contain a minimum of 50 to 60 polyolefin. The short, high-speed adiabatic screw extruder melts...

97 Downstream processes

Product specification can have an important bearing on the design of a crystallization plant. The specifications that have most influence on the downstream operations of those concerned with crystal purity, size distribution and moisture content. Since mother liquor contamination is a major cause of impurity appearing in a final product, an excessively tight purity specification can influence the choice of filter or centrifuge. It may also demand special washing facilities, a reslurrying step or even recrystallization. A tight crystal size distribution specification, for example, could necessitate a wet classification stage after the crystallizer, or a dry screening step after the dryer. In either case there could be consequential problems associated with recycling undersize and or oversize material. The use of the term 'mean size' in crystal product specifications is a frequent cause of misunderstanding and disagreement between producer and customer. It should always be clearly...

Applications and Limitations of Dry Blast Cleaning

Mechanical dry blasting does not readily lend itself to the removal of viscous or resilient soils such as grease, oil, or tar. These materials not only resist the blast action but also cling to, or coat, the abrasive material and components of the abrasive-recycling system. In time, such soils disrupt proper recycling, reclamation, and airwash separation of the reusable abrasive. Therefore, parts coated with oil or other viscous soils must be thoroughly degreased, or scrubbed and dried, before the mechanical dry blast operation.

Design and Provisions for Solid Refuse Wood and Biomass Fuel Boilers

Babcock And Wilcox Boiler Block Diagram

With RDF combustion, the refuse is first separated, classified, and reclaimed to yield recyclable products. The balance is then moved to the boiler through multiple feeders onto a traveling grate stoker. In addition to shredding to reduce the size and create a more homogeneous fuel, an assortment of separation processes are used to eliminate materials such as stones, grit, and dirt and recover materials such as ferrous metals and aluminum cans. Overhead magnets are used to recover ferrous metals and can yield a recovery rate of up to 90 . An eddy current separator can be used for the removal of aluminum cans. Other devices such as a rotating trommel screen (a perforated drum) and air density separators are used to further sort and separate the various materials. In addition to the recycling benefits, the resulting homogeneous RDF has a higher energy density and burns more efficiently than mass-burn fuel, produces less than half the ash, and can be more effectively metered to match...

49 The PNGV programme impetus for change

Such advances are aimed at more efficient energy conversion power sources, viable hybrid concepts as well as lighter weight and more efficient vehicle designs. The contributions of US government agencies include the following at its ten National Laboratories, the Department of Energy has technical expertise, facilities, and resources that can help achieve the goals of the partnership. Examples include research programmes in advanced engine technologies such as gas turbines, hybrid vehicles, alternative fuels, fuel cells, advanced energy storage, and lightweight materials. The DOE's efforts are implemented through cost-shared contracts and cooperative agreements with the auto industry, suppliers, and others. Technologies covered include fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, gas turbines, energy storage materials and others. The Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is focused on medium-duty and heavy-duty drivetrains for military vehicles which could, in the future,...

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