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F-factor = UG vpG

FIGURE 13.9 Comparison of predicted and experimental HETP values for 25.4 mm Pall rings (from Yin et al., 2000).

distribution and size of bed section should be kept in mind when generating randomly distributed porosity within the bed.

Closure models, similar to those used by Yin et al. (2000), can also be used to simulate flows in trickle bed reactors. It must, however, be noted that in a packed column used for separations, packing element size is around 25 mm, while in trickle bed reactors, the particle sizes are typically in the range 0.5 to 6 mm. For large

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