Design and construction philosophy

1 3 tonne vessel arrives on-site complete with nozzles and manhole doors in place. 2 Pipe gantry and vessel support steel arrives piece small. 3 Pumps, motors and bedplates arrive as separate units. 4 Stairs arrive in sections with treads fitted to a pair of stringers. 5 Suction and discharge headers are partially fabricated with weldolet tees in place. Slip-on flanges to be welded on-site for valves, vessel connection and blanked-off ends. 6 Suction and discharge lines from pumps to have...

Glossary

Activity An operation on a network which takes time (or other resources) and is indicated by an arrow. Actual cost of work performed (ACWP) Cumulative actual cost (in money or manhours) of work booked in a specific period. Actual hours The manhours actually expended on an activity or contract over a defined period. AoN Activity on Node. AoA Activity on Arrow. Arithmetical analysis A method for calculating floats arithmetically. Arrow A symbol on a network to represent an activity or dummy....

Calculation of float

By far the quickest way to calculate the float of a particular activity is to do it manually. In practice, one does not require to know the float of all activities at the same time. A list of floats is, therefore, unnecessary. The important point is that the float of a particular activity which is of immediate interest is obtainable quickly and accurately. Consider the string of activities in a simple construction process. This is shown in Figure 14.1 in Activity on Arrow (AoA) format and in...

Scheduling the project

Once the project data has been completed the results can be calculated by using the scheduling facilities of Hornet Windmill. The most common analysis method is to perform a standard Time Schedule or Time Analysis for the entered tasks and logic links. Under this calculation the task start and finish dates - both early and late dates - are calculated based on the task durations and logic links or constraints between them. This is a very quick calculation and the displays are promptly updated to...

1 Similar items of equipment

Here the network shows a series of strings which collect together similar items of equipment, such as pumps, tanks, vessels, boilers, and roads. This is shown in Figure 21.1. O Excavate founds. Hardening Setpump motor O Excavate base paa tankbott. .- s. Figure 21.1 Similar items of equipment Figure 21.1 Similar items of equipment (a) Equipment items are quickly found (b) Interface with design network is easily established.

Network and method statements

More and more clients and consultants require contractors to produce method statements as part of their construction documentation. Indeed, a method statement for certain complex operations may be a requirement of ISO 9000 Part I. A method statement is basically an explanation of the sequence of operations augmented by a description of the resources (i.e. cranes and other tackle) required for the job. It must be immediately apparent that a network can be of great benefit, not only in explaining...

Monitoring

To keep control of the risks, a risk register should be produced which lists all the risks and their method of management. Such a list is shown in Figure 8.7. Where risk owners have been appointed, these will be identified on the register. The risks must be constantly monitored and at preset periods, the register must be reassessed and if necessary amended to reflect the latest position. Clearly as the project proceeds, the risks reduce in number, so that the contingency sums allocated to cover...

2715

The total time taken to perform these activities is 27.15 minutes. The total time taken to perform these activities is 27.15 minutes. The first question therefore is, have we any activity which is unnecessary Yes. We need not kiss the wife goodbye. But this only saves us 0.1 minute and the saving is of little benefit. Besides, it could have serious repercussions. The second question must therefore be, are there any activities which we can perform simultaneously Yes. We can clean our shoes while...

840

6 An on-cost allowance of 20 is made up of 7 The total charge-out rate is, therefore, 10.44 x 1.2 12.53 per hour. (a) The men are paid at the end of each day at a rate of 8.40 hour. (b) The other substantive items of 2.04 hour are paid weekly. (c) Income is received weekly at the charge-out rate of 12.53 hour. 9 A week consists of 5 working days. To enable the financing costs to be calculated at the estimate stage, cash flow charts are usually only drawn to show the difference between planned...

H

Resource smoothing and curve plotting, took exactly 6 minutes. Once the activities and resources have been listed on graph paper, the bar chart draughting and resource smoothing of a practical network of approximately 200 activities can usually be carried out in about one hour. Most modern computers' project management programs have resource smoothing facilities which enable the base to be re-positioned on the screen to give the required resource total for any time period.

Time bound project

A scoreboard for a prestigious tennis tournament must be finished in time for the opening match, even if it costs more than anticipated and the display of some secondary information, such as the speed of the service, has to be abandoned. In other words, cost and performance may have to be sacrificed to meet the unalterable starting date of the tournament. (In practice, the increased cost may well be a matter of further negotiation and the temporarily delayed display can usually be added later...

1 Bringing a new product onto the market

The operations involved in launching a new product require careful planning and coordination. This example shows how network techniques were used to plan the development, manufacture and marketing of a new type of water meter for use in countries where these are installed on every premises. The list of operations are first grouped into five main functions A Management B Design and development C Production D Purchasing and supply E Sales and marketing. Each main function is then divided into...

1

Figure 30.14 Precedent logic links for task 1006 in a data grid display Figure 30.14 Precedent logic links for task 1006 in a data grid display Tracing of logic through a project is also supported by two tabular reports - a listing of all precedents and successors on a task-by-task basis - and a logic trace report that lists precedents to a given task, then lists the precedents to the precedents, and so on (the report can also work through successors). This form of 'thread' analysis can be...

5

Total time 35 hours saving 3 hours obvious activities which can be carried out while the component is actually being transported (usually on a conveyor system) is cooling off, painting and paint drying. As can be seen from Figure 23.8, such a change in the manufacturing procedure saves 3 hours. Any further time savings now require a reduction in duration of some of the individual activities. The first choice must obviously be those with the longest durations, i.e. These operations require new...

Management

There are very few projects which do not change in some way during their life cycle. Equally there are very few changes which do not affect in some way either (or all) the time, cost or quality aspects of the project. For this reason it is important that all changes are recorded, evaluated and managed to ensure that the effects are appreciated by the originator of the change, and the party carrying out the change is suitably reimbursed where the change is a genuine extra to the original...

3500

An adjustment should therefore also be made to the value of plant utilization i.e. 12000 x 91 10920. The adjusted value total would therefore be as shown in column V. The SMAC system described on the previous pages was developed in 1978 by Foster Wheeler Power Products, primarily to find a quicker and more accurate method for assessing the complete of multi-discipline, multi-contractor construction projects. However, about 10 years earlier the Department of Defense in the USA developed an...

33

One of the phenomena of a computer printout is the comparatively large number of activities with free float. Closer examination shows that the majority of these are in fact dummy activities. The reason for this is, of course, obvious, since, by definition, free float can only exist when more than one activity enters a node. As dummies nearly always enter a node with another (real) activity, they all tend to have free float. Unfortunately, no computer program exists which automatically transfers...

5 Stages of completion

If particular parts of the site have to be completed earlier than others (i.e. if the work has to be handed over to the client in well-defined stages), it is essential that each stage is programmed separately. There will, of course, be interfaces and links with preceding and succeeding stages, but within these boundaries the network should be self-contained. (a) Attention is drawn to activities requiring early completion (b) Predictions for completion of each stage are made more quickly (c)...

Project closeout

Towards the end of the project, the project manager must make arrangements for a controlled close-out of the project. There is always a risk of time and money being expended on additional work not originally envisaged or where envisaged work is dragged out because no firm cut-off date has been imposed. However, before a project can be handed over, a large number of documents have to be checked and updated to reflect the latest version and as-built condition. In addition, certain documents...

Cm

Percentage - time curves Figure 27.10 Boiler No. 1. Percentage - time curves 1 Total manhours expended this week (W column) 2 Total manhours to date (A column) 3 Percentage complete of project ( column) 4 Total value hours to date (V column) Alternatively, the site returns can be processed by computer and the resulting printout of part of a project is shown in Figure 27.11. Whether the information is collected manually or electronically, the return can be made on a...

Safety bound project

Apart from the obvious examples of public transport given previously, safety is a factor that is required by law and enshrined in the Health & Safety at Work Act. Not only must safe practices be built into every project, but constant monitoring is an essential element of a safety policy. To that extent it could be argued that all projects are safety bound, since if it became evident after an accident that safety was sacrificed for speed or profitability, some or all of the project...

Project definition

Many people and organizations have defined what a project is, or should be, but probably the most authoritative definition is that given in BS 6079 'Guide to Project Management'. 'A unique set of co-ordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken by an individual or organization to meet specific objectives within defined schedule, cost and performance parameters.' The next question that can be asked is 'Why does one need project management ' What is the difference...

Cpa

Phase A division of the project life cycle. Planned cost The estimated (anticipated) cost of a project. Precedence network A method of network programming in which the activities are written in the node boxes and connected by lines to show their Preceding event The beginning event of an activity. Printout See Output. Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) Hierarchical decomposition of a project into various levels of products. Program The set of instructions given to a computer. Programme A group of...

Project life cycles

Most, if not all, projects go through a life cycle which varies with the size and complexity of the project. On medium to large projects the life cycle will generally follow the pattern which has been set out in BS 6079. This is Basic ideas, business case, statement of requirements, scope Tests for technical, commercial and financial viability, technical studies, investment appraisal, DCF etc. Application for funds, stating risks, options, TCQ criteria Approvals, permits, conditions, project...

Project cost control

Entering the man-hours figures for the SMAC Project Cost Control as described in Chapter 27 is extremely straightforward and takes the minimum of input. The user can select the appropriate data grid display to show all the Figure 30.22 Task data grid showing cost control data columns Figure 30.22 Task data grid showing cost control data columns key cost control parameters on the main task data grid and bar chart display. On the display shown in Figure 30.22 the columns have been sized to...

Cdm

CEN Comite Europeen de Normalization General CIF Carriage, Insurance, Freight Procurement CM Configuration Management PM CPA Critical Path Analysis PM CPA Contract Price Adjustment Procurement CPI Cost Performance Index EVA CPM Critical Path Methods CPA CSCS Cost & Schedule Control System EVA DCF Discounted Cash Flow Finance DDP Delivery Duty Paid Procurement DIN Deutsche Industrie Normen General EVA Earned Value Analysis PM EVMS Earned Value Management System EVA FLAC Four Letter Acronym...

6kj1kj

Would simply restate the first activity as 'Cast Column and Strike Formwork, 6 days' (Figure 13.2). While this overcomes the drafting problem it may not be acceptable from a cost control point of view, especially if the network is geared to an EVA system (see Chapter 27). Furthermore the fact that the grid numbers were on the nodes meant that when it was necessary to move a string along one or more grid spaces, the relationship between the grid number and the activity changed. This could...

Project management plan

As soon as the project manager has received his brief or project instructions, he must produce a document which distils what is generally a vast amount of information into a concise, informative and well-organized form that can be distributed to all members of the project team and indeed all the stakeholders in the project. This document is called a project management plan (PMP), but is also sometimes just called a project plan, or in some organizations a coordination procedure. The PMP is one...

Turner 1993 Bibliography Project Management

Adair, J., Effective Leadership, PAN (1983) Ahuja, H.N., Construction Performance Control by Networks, Wiley (1976) Andersen, E.S., Grude, K.V. & Haug, Tor, Goal Directed Project Management, 2nd edn, Kogan Page (2002) Antill, J.M. & Woodhead, R., Critical Path Methods in Construction Practice, Wiley (1982) APM, Body of Knowledge, Association for Project Management (1996) APM, Planning Contracts for Successful Project Management, APM Group (1998) APM, Project Risk Assessment and...

Closeout report

Using the information recorded in the project diary and the various project status reports, the project manager must now prepare his project close-out report. This should discuss the degree of compliance with the original project brief (or business case) and acceptance criteria and highlight any important problems encountered together with the solutions adopted. Apart from giving a short history and post-implementation review of the project, the purpose of this document is to enable future...

Basic rules

Before proceeding further it may be prudent at this stage to list some very simple but basic rules for network presentation, which must be adhered to rigidly 1 Where the starting node of an activity is also the finishing node of one or more other activities, it means that all the activities with this finishing node must be completed before the activity starting from that node can be commenced. For example, in Figure 11.2, 1-3(A) and 2-3(B) must be completed before 3 -4(C) can be started. 2 Each...

Hornet Windmill

Hornet Windmill is the latest version of the range of Hornet Software for Project Management that has been developed steadily over the past 20 years by Claremont Controls Ltd. This software system is designed for use on PCs and provides a high performance project planning and control tool for use with virtually any type of project. In its early versions the product was designed for use on the character style DOS displays of the first personal computers. Now current versions of the system have...

Generic work breakdown structure

While such a breakdown into blocks is suitable for an engineering contract, a similar system can be used for any other type of project. By breaking the project down into discrete components or tasks, we create what is known as a work breakdown structure or WBS. The choice of tasks incorporated in the WBS is best made by the project team drawing on their combined experience or engaging in a brainstorming session. Once the main tasks have been decided upon, they can in turn can be broken down...