Project Management Templates

PM Milestone 7000 Project Management Templates

The PM Milestone Project Management and Business Templates, Plans, Tools, Forms and Guides is a comprehensive package consisting of more than 7000 tried and tested Site Management and Business documents. It includes an entire methodology for managing projects and it saves you time and effort, and because each document has been professionally laid out, you can generate higher quality documentation as a result. The use of our documents alone will provide a consistent project management delivery methodology across your business, displaying professionalism, credibility and reliability to your colleagues and clients alike. Now you no longer need to mess around re-creating project documents with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Visio, just use PMMilestone to build all your Reports, Spreadsheets, Plan, Proposal, Registers, Logs and moreeffortlessly! Read more...

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Project Review And Audit Processes

To distinguish between a review and an audit, some definitions will be provided. A review is a critical examination or evaluation of any operation, procedure, condition, event, or equipment item. Reviews can take many forms and be identified as project reviews, design reviews, safety reviews, pre-start-up reviews, and so on. The following discussion of the review process will deal with project reviews associated with capital projects and focus on the area of process safety. An audit is a formal, methodical examination and verification of an operation, procedure, condition, event, or series of transactions. The verification element of an audit makes it distinctive from a review. A project review will recommend design, procedural, maintenance, and management practices to minimize hazards and reduce risk while meeting company standards and government regulations. An audit will verify that the design, the procedures, and the management systems are actually in place, and are being...

Responsibilities of the project managers

It is not easy to define the responsibilities of a project manager, mainly because the scope covered by such a position varies not only from industry to industry but also from one company to another. Three areas of responsibility, however, are nearly always part of the project manager's brief Time, therefore, is vitally important, and the control of time, whether at the design stage or the construction stage, should be a matter of top priority with the project manager. It is surprising, therefore, that so few project managers are fully conversant with the mechanics of network analysis and its advantages over other systems. Even if it had no other function but to act as a polarizing communication document, it would justify its use in preference to other methods.

412The Project Manager

The project manager is the single most important player throughout the design and construction process. This person must have experience in similar situations, common sense, and commitment to the project goals. Whether the goal is the cheapest initial-cost space or the most vibration-free work platform achievable, the day-to-day control of the project is the responsibility of the PM. Once the committee decides the issues and objectives and assigns them significance factors (hierarchy), the PM will be the primary point of interface. It may be the PM's responsibility to originate and then implement the hierarchy chart with help from the building committee. The PM will also be responsible for paperwork throughout the project. From the selection of the design firm through construction, this person will represent the firm in meetings with outside agents and agencies. See Figure 4.1 for a diagram showing the relationships among all parties.

Generic work breakdown structure

While such a breakdown into blocks is suitable for an engineering contract, a similar system can be used for any other type of project. By breaking the project down into discrete components or tasks, we create what is known as a work breakdown structure or WBS. strictly speaking a Product Breakdown Structure (PBS), because we are dealing with products or things. If on the other hand we are describing the work which has to be performed on the nouns and use verbs, we call it a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Frequently, a diagram starts as a PBS for the first three or four levels and then becomes a WBS as more detail is being introduced. Despite this unfortunate lack of uniformity of nomenclature in the project management fraternity, the principles of subdividing the project into manageable components are the same. It must be pointed out, however, that the work breakdown structure is not a programme, although it looks like a precedence diagram. The interrelationships shown by the link...

Turner 1993 Bibliography Project Management

By Networks, Wiley (1976) Andersen, E.S., Grude, K.V. & Haug, Tor, Goal Directed Project Management, 2nd edn, Kogan Page (2002) Antill, J.M. & Woodhead, R., Critical Path Methods in Construction Practice, Wiley (1982) APM, Body of Knowledge, Association for Project Management (1996) APM, Planning Contracts for Successful Project Project Manager, APM Group (1998) Archibald, R.D., Managing High-Technology Baguly, Phil, Teach Yourself Project Management, T.Y. Books (1999) Bank, J., The Essence of Total Quality Project Management, Prentice Hall Belanger, T.C., The Complete Planning Guide to Microsoft Project, Briner, W., Hastings, C. & Geddes, M., Project Leadership, Gower (1996) British Standards Institution, BS 6079, Part 1, Guide to Project Management, BSI (2002) British Standards Institution, BS 6079, Part 2, Project Management in project management, BSI (1992) British Standards Institution, BS 7000, Design Management Systems, BSI (1995) Guidelines to Quality in Project...

116 Project Management

It is important for safety not only that the plant should be well designed, but that the project as a whole should be well managed. Accounts of project management are given in A Guide to Project Procedure (Rose, Wells and Yeats, 1978), Project Management Handbook (Cleland and King, 1983), Effective Project Cost Control (Kharbanda and Stallworthy, 1985) and A Guide to Project Implementation (Kharbanda and Stallworthy, 1985)

Project management plan

As soon as the project manager has received his brief or project instructions, he must produce a document which distils what is generally a vast amount of information into a concise, informative and well-organized form that can be distributed to all members of the project team and indeed all the stakeholders in the project. This document is called a project management plan (PMP), but is also sometimes just called a project plan, or in some organizations a coordination procedure. The PMP is one of the key documents required by the project manager and his her team. It lists the phases and encapsulates all the main parameters, standards and requirements of the project in terms of time, cost and quality performance by setting out the 'Why', 'What', 'When 'Who', 'Where' and 'How' of the project. In some organizations the PMP also includes the 'How much', that is the cost of the project. There may, however, be good commercial reasons for restricting this information to key members of the...

Preface to the third edition

In the last two paragraphs of the second edition, reference was made to other project management skills, emphasizing that planning and monitoring systems were only part of the project manager's armoury. The purpose of this book, therefore, is to explain what some of these other parts are. It was not, however, the intention to produce a comprehensive book on project management, but merely to update the previous edition, adding such sections as were considered to be more closely related to project management than general management. An examination of courses on project management will reveal that they cover two types of skills The original text has been updated where considered necessary, including the list of the currently available project management software programs, which are however being themselves updated constantly. One important change is the substitution of the description of the Primavera P3 program by the Hornet Windmill program. The reason for this change is that while...

Preface to the first edition

As a management tool, especially in project management of large capital construction projects, network techniques are unsurpassed, provided - and this is a very important proviso - the activities have been arranged in a logical, practical and easily identifiable manner by people who know the disciplines and problems involved. Unfortunately, there are numerous instances where contractors believe that by merely producing sophisticated computer-analysed networks, they improve their control and increase the chances of completing on time. The fallacy of this belief is borne out by a recent report published by the National Economic Development Office (NEDO) which compared, among other factors, the planning techniques on eighteen construction sites in the UK, Europe and America. Extracts of this report are given in Chapter 8.

2Indirect stakeholders

Positive stakeholders are concerned with the design and implementation of the project with the object of completing the project within the specified parameters of time, cost and quality performance. They therefore include the sponsor, project manager and the project and construction installation teams. All stakeholders, whether positive or negative, must be analysed to assess their contribution, influence or disruptive capabilities on the project and this will help the project manager to prioritize their needs and decide whether they should be embraced or treated with caution. Diplomacy and tact are essential when negotiating with potentially disruptive organizations and it is highly advisable to enlist experts in the discussion process. Most large organizations employ labour and public relations experts as well as lawyers well versed in dealing with difficult stakeholders and their services can be of enormous help to the project manager.

Project organization task force

From a project manager's point of view this is the ideal type of project organization, since with such a set up he has complete control over every aspect of the project. The project team will usually be located in one area which can be a room for a small project or a complete building for a very large one. Lines of communication are short and the interaction of the disciplines reduces the risk of errors and misunderstandings. Not only are the planning and technical functions part of the team but also the project cost control and project accounting staff. This places an enormous burden and responsibility on the project manager, who will have to delegate much of the day-to-day management to special project coordinators whose prime function is to ensure a good communication flow and timely receipt of reports and feedback information from external sources. On large projects with budgets often greater than 0.5 billion, the project manager's responsibilities are akin to those of a managing...

Example of integration of tools and techniques

The example in this chapter shows how all the tools and techniques described so far can be integrated to give a comprehensive project management system. The project chosen is the design, manufacture and distribution of a prototype motor car and while the operations and time scales are only indicative and do not purport to represent a real life situation, the examples show how the techniques follow each other in a logical sequence.

Configuration management

Although in the confined project management context configuration management is often assumed to be synonymous with version control of documentation or software, it is of course very much more far reaching in the total project environment. Developed originally in the aerospace industry, it has been created to ensure that changes and modifications to physical components, software, systems and documentation are recorded and identified in such a way that replacements, spares and assembly documentation has conformed to the version in service. It also has been developed to ensure that the design standards and characteristics were reflected accurately in the finished product.

8 Typical manufacturing unit

In a similar way, the interrelationship at the design stage is often overemphasized. Design networks are usually confined to work in the various engineering departments and need not include such activities as planning and financial approvals or acceptance of codes and standards. These should preferably be obtained in advance by project management. Once the main flowsheets, plot plans and piping and instrument diagrams have been drafted (i.e. they need not even have been completed), design work can proceed in each block with a considerable degree of independence. For example, the tank farm may be designed quite independently of the process unit or the NGL plant, etc., and the boiler house has little effect on the administration building or the jetties and loading station.

Sitepreparation contract

It can be seen, therefore, that in this instance a manual network enabled the project manager to control both the programme (time) and the cost of the job with minimum paperwork. This was primarily because the men who actually carried out the work in the field were involved and were convinced of the usefulness of the network programme.

Adding resources to the project

Project resources can cover a wide range of different commodities and these are often applied quite differently by users. Hornet Windmill is very flexible in what it terms as a resource - a resource is any commodity that has a quantity associated to it and that can be linked to the completion of an individual task within the project. This definition covers most things - work content in manhours (or mandays), monetary value, material quantities, equipment needs etc. The user is free to define as many distinct resource types, or resource centres, as needed by the project. The user must ensure that the units used on each resource are consistent through the project, although

Scheduling the project

Once the project data has been completed the results can be calculated by using the scheduling facilities of Hornet Windmill. The most common analysis method is to perform a standard Time Schedule or Time Analysis for the entered tasks and logic links. Under this calculation the task start and finish dates - both early and late dates - are calculated based on the task durations and logic links or constraints between them. This is a very quick calculation and the displays are promptly updated to show the new values. The calculation in Hornet Windmill also takes into consideration the relevant working calendar patterns (weekends and holidays) for all tasks and logic links, and builds the future dates on any progress details already entered for the project. The calculation uses a 'time now' or 'project date' as the equivalent to today's date which marks the point between the past and the future in the project schedule. The scheduling calculations in Hornet Windmill can also take into...

Edition

At the time of writing, Earned Value Analysis (EVA) has still not been fully embraced by certain sections of industry. One reason for this may be the jargon associated with this technique. When we developed our own EVA system at Foster Wheeler as far back as 1978 we used the simple terms of Actual Cost, Planned Cost and Earned Value. Unfortunately the American CSCSC system introduced such terms as ACWP, BCWS and BCWP which often generated groans from students and rejection from practitioners. It is gratifying to note therefore that the campaign to eradicate these abbreviations has prompted the British Standards Institution and the Association for Project Management to give prominence to the original English words. To encourage this welcome trend, the terms used in EVA methods in this book are in English instead of jargon. paper 2 of the examination, some new topics have been included in this edition and a number of topics have been enhanced. However, no attempt has been made to...

Matrix organization

The personnel allocated to a particular project are responsible to a project manager for meeting the three basic project criteria, time, cost and quality. The departmental manager is, however, still responsible for their 'pay and rations' and their compliance with the department's standards and procedures, including technical competence and conformity to company quality standards. The members of this project team will still be working at their desks in their department, but will be booking their time to the project. Where the project does not warrant a full-time contribution, only those hours actually expended on the project will be allocated to it. 6 The project manager does not have to concern himself with staff problems. 2 There may be split loyalties between the project manager and the departmental manager due to the dual reporting requirements 4 Executive management may have to spend more time to ensure a fair balance of power between the project manager and the department...

Document control

Invariably a change to even the smallest part of a project requires the amendment of one or more documents. These may be programmes, specifications, drawings, instructions and of course financial records. The amendment of each document is in itself a change and it is vital that the latest version of the document is issued to all the original recipients. In order to ensure that this takes place, a document control, or version control procedure must be part of the project management plan. In practice a document control procedure may be either a single page of A4 or several pages of a spreadsheet as part of the computerized project management system. The format should, however, feature the following columns Where changes have been made to one or more pages of a multi-page document, such as a project management plan, it is only necessary to issue the revised pages under a page revision number. This requires a discrete version

Quality management

Quality (or performance) forms the third corner of the time-cost-quality triangle which is the basis of project management. To ensure that the necessary quality processes are in place, quality management systems (QMS), which may well cover the whole spectrum of an organization, have to be established and regularly monitored. Guidelines for quality management and quality assurance standards are published by BSI in the ISO 9000, 9001 and 9004 series of standards. ISO 10006 are guidelines for quality in project management and ISO 10007 are guidelines for configuration management. BS ISO 10006 Quality management - Guide to quality in project management

Resource loading

As available access or working space as well as financial, contractual or even political restraints. Often it may be possible to make technical changes which alter the resource mix. For example, a shortage of carpenters used for formwork erection may make it necessary to increase the use of pre-cast components with a possible increase in cost but a decrease in time. Project management is more than just writing and monitoring programs. The so-called project management systems are really only there to present to the project manager on a regular basis the position of the project to date and the possible consequences unless some form of remedial action is taken. The type of action and the timing of it rests fairly and squarely on the shoulders of management.

Estimating

Estimating is an essential part of project management, since it becomes the baseline for subsequent cost control. If the estimate for a project is too low, a company may well lose money in the execution of the work. If the estimate is high, the company may well lose the contract due to overpricing.

Risk management

The Project Management Plan (PMP) should include a r sum of the Risk Management Plan, which will first of all define the scope and areas to which risk management applies, particularly the risk types to be investigated. It will also specify which techniques will be used for risk identification and assessment, whether SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is required and which risks (if any) require a more rigorous quantitative analysis such as Monte Carlo methods. Work breakdown structure

Integrated systems

The trend is to produce and operate integrated project management systems. By using the various regular inputs generated by the different operating departments, these systems can, on demand, give the project manager an up-to-date status report of the job in terms of time, cost and resources. This facility is particularly valuable once the project has reached the construction stage. The high cost of mainframe machines and the unreliability of regular feedback - even with the use of terminals - has held back the full utilization of computing facilities in the field, especially in remote sites. The PCs, with their low cost, mobility and ease of operation, have changed all this so that effective project control information can be generated on the spot.

Confidence in plan

It is vitally important that no one, but no one, associated with a project must lose faith in the programme or the overall plan. It is one of the prime duties of a project manager to ensure that this faith exists. Where small cracks do appear in this vital bridge of understanding between the planning department and the operational departments, the project manager must do everything in his power to close them before they become chasms of suspicion and despondency. It may be necessary to re-examine the plan, or change the planner, or hold a meeting explaining the situation to all parties, but a plan in which the participants have no faith is not worth the paper it is drawn on. Having convinced all parties that the network is a useful control tool, the project manager must now ensure that it is kept up to date and the new information transmitted to all the interested parties as quickly as possible. This requires exerting a constant pressure on the planning department, or planning...

Control graphs

The actual shape of the curves on these graphs give the project manager an insight into the running of the job, enabling appropriate action to be taken. It will be appreciated that this system lends itself ideally to computerization, giving the project manager the maximum information with the very minimum of site input. The sensitivity of the system is shown by the immediate change in

Task data values

When a project is first planned then all tasks relate to 'future' work and the project schedule will run from the first work on site through to project completion. However, once work is underway the actual progress made in the field will need to be reflected in the project plan. This data is added to the project by recording the dates when each task commenced and, when completed, when it was finished. This information is vital as it allows Hornet Windmill to reschedule the uncompleted sections of the project based on the actual work done in the field. The results from this will show a revized future schedule based on the actual work done. To add this information data columns relating to actual start and finish dates, and a column for progress for tasks underway, are used.

Hornet Windmill

Hornet Windmill is the latest version of the range of Hornet Software for Project Management that has been developed steadily over the past 20 years by Claremont Controls Ltd. This software system is designed for use on PCs and provides a high performance project planning and control tool for use with virtually any type of project. In its early versions the product was designed for use on the character style DOS displays of the first personal computers. Now current versions of the system have taken the product forward onto the Windows operating environment to provide a highly interactive, yet flexible and powerful management tool. Hornet Windmill may be used in both the single-project and multi-project environments, and includes an extremely powerful scheduling capacity and very comprehensive and flexible reporting capability. Over recent years all PC-based project management software systems have become more interactive with direct entry of task details and logic on tabular grids and...

Closeout report

Using the information recorded in the project diary and the various project status reports, the project manager must now prepare his project close-out report. This should discuss the degree of compliance with the original project brief (or business case) and acceptance criteria and highlight any important problems encountered together with the solutions adopted. Apart from giving a short history and post-implementation review of the project, the purpose of this document is to enable future project managers on similar projects to learn from the experience and issues encountered. For this reason the close-out report has to be properly indexed and archived in hard copy or electronic format for easy retrieval.

Project life cycles

As the word 'cycle' implies, the phases may have to be amended in terms of content, cost and duration as new information is fed back to the project manager and sponsor. Projects are essentially dynamic organizations which are not only specifically created to effect change, but are also themselves subject to change. On some projects it may be convenient to appoint a different project manager at a change of phase. This is often done where the first four stages are handled by the development or sales department, who then hand the Project management plan Project management plan Figure 4.2 Project management life cycle Figure 4.2 Project management life cycle

Project definition

Many people and organizations have defined what a project is, or should be, but probably the most authoritative definition is that given in BS 6079 'Guide to Project Management'. The next question that can be asked is 'Why does one need project management ' What is the difference between project management and management of any other business or enterprise Why has project management taken off so dramatically in the last twenty years The answer is that project management is essentially management of change, while running a functional or ongoing business is managing a continuum or 'business-as-usual'. Project management is not applicable to running a factory making sausage pies, but it will be the right system when there is a requirement to relocate the factory, build an extension, or produce a different product requiring new machinery, skills, staff training and even marketing techniques.

Safety bound project

A serious accident which may kill or injure people will not only cause anguish among the relatives, but, while not necessarily terminating the project, could very well destroy the company. For this reason the 'S' symbol when shown in the middle of the project management triangle gives more emphasis of its importance (see Figure 1.1). It can be seen therefore that the priorities can change with the political or commercial needs of the client even within the life cycle of the project, and the project manager has to constantly evaluate these changes to determine the new priorities. Ideally, all the main criteria should be met (and indeed on many well-run projects, this is the case), but there are times when the project manager, with the agreement of the sponsor or client, has to take difficult decisions to satisfy the best interests of most, if not all, the stakeholders.

Project closeout

Towards the end of the project, the project manager must make arrangements for a controlled close-out of the project. There is always a risk of time and money being expended on additional work not originally envisaged or where envisaged work is dragged out because no firm cut-off date has been imposed. However, before a project can be handed over, a large number of documents have to be checked and updated to reflect the latest version and as-built condition.

International Activities In Environmental Impact Assessment

EIA practice in the United States has typically focused on the preparation of an EA or an EIS. Follow-on activities are only minimally addressed. In contrast, post-EIS activities are emphasized in many countries. These activities include collecting monitoring data and using this information in project management to minimize negative environmental consequences.

3 Highways and Local Programs Service Center

The Highways and Local Programs Service Center includes many important subprograms and offices. The Service Center helps Washington's local agencies develop their local transportation projects and qualify for federal and state funding to cover some of their project costs. This Service Center provides oversight, technical support, and training to help ensure effective delivery of projects being developed by cities, counties, ports, transit, tribes, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, Regional Transportation Planning Organizations, scenic byway organizations, other state and federal agencies, and private nonprofit agencies.

Computeraided design and concurrent engineering

The integration of the aircraft design process requires careful management of the computer information system to avoid the use of different standards yet to allow changes to be incorporated as the design develops. The aircraft project manager has to control the total system design. This requires different knowledge and skills to that of the traditional chief designer. Several different software suites have been developed to meet the requirements of 'computer-aided design'. Each of the major manufacturing companies has incorporated a specific CAD system which it standardises for use in all the sections of the company and they require subcontractors to be able to use a similar system.

8Reports and Recommendations

Contains a summary of findings, and lists recommendations. The individual reports are submitted to the Project Manager for review. (b) Preliminary Recommendations. The Project Manager and the IDT review all discipline reports and develop preliminary recommendations after discussing the various alternative trade-offs. The district submits the preliminary recommendations to the headquarters Project Development Office for review and approval. After approval they are returned to the district.

28 Personnel involved

The Project manager works manager the presence of whom on the area classification team gives the necessary seniority to ensure the credibility of the exercise. The project engineer or works manager should chair the group and, while it is recognized that these senior people may delegate the duty of area classification, it is stressed that the seniority of the person to whom the duty is delegated must be sufficient to ensure the credibility of the exercise and he or she must be seen as the representative of the project engineer or works manager.

Organizational interfaces 4124

The standard requires systems to be in place to ensure management of appropriate activities during concept development, prototype, and production according to customer advanced product quality planning and control plan manual or project management manual. What this requirement implies is that the organization has to set up product-oriented teams comprising staff from each of the disciplines that will be involved. These teams should be formed during the conceptual phase of product development and operate throughout the development and production phases. What is required is project management through development and product management through production.

16 Software Engineering for Complex Control Systems

While the controller design procedure outlined for single-loop control systems was largely developed for traditional low level feedback control systems, it is stated in a general enough manner to be useful for relatively complex control systems. In large computer automation projects, however, project management and design methodology issues must be given special attention since the process involves the construction of a large software program by teams of engineers and scientists. In this section we briefly outline some basic ideas from software engineering, and relate these to the enterprise of control engineering for complex automation systems.

303 The PDM Collaborator System

Collaboration services of PDM Collaborator deliver tools and functionalities covering project- and process-related aspects of collaborations and are by that the basis for product-related collaboration aspects. A project management module supports the cross- enterprise project management. For actions that are relevant to other users a notification is sent automatically. The information needed by the project management module is stored in a so-called cooperation model which also includes the project structure 2 .

232 How PDM Supports Engineering Processes

PDM systems build upon relational database systems and thus inherit features like optimised query languages, secure concurrent access, distributed storage and reliable back up and recovery. To this they add typical functions like data vault and document management, work flow and process management, product structure management, project management, product classification and a set of utilities for data translation, image services and data administration. These functions can be presented in a more structured way in the PDM function matrix 5 (see Figure 23.1). The columns make the distinction between functions for document, product and process project management. In practice engineers easily mix up these concepts, for example, by using the item number (product-id) as drawing number and intermixing project phase and product status. This is dangerous because documents, products and processes have different life cycles, use different status codes and make life cycle steps at different...

211 Type specification

At the completion of the initial design phase all details that are known about the aircraft are summarised in a report called the Aircraft Type Specification'. It is the project manager who is responsible for this report. He is accountable for the accuracy of the data and he will be expected to guarantee its validity. In a company, the sales and legal departments will use this document in contract negotiations. The technical specification therefore defines the guarantees the company will offer clients and thereby the liability it accepts in the contract to buy and use the aircraft and systems. Within this context the document is treated seriously in the design organisation. It will not contain speculative statements or unsupportable data. The report consists of textural descriptions, drawings, diagrams, numerical data, graphs and charts. As the design of the aircraft progresses through later phases of the design process the document will be systematically reviewed and updated to...

Multidisciplinary approach for decision making 4124

If you have adopted use of either the APQP manual or Project Management Manual, then you will have formed multidisciplinary teams that are dedicated to a particular project and who make decisions associated with that project. If you have appointed customer representatives as defined in clause 4.1.2.1.2, you will have put in place the means by which effective communication with the customer can take place. There are, however, two additional requirements. The first is for the team to make project decisions. Hence, once the contract has been accepted and resources allocated, the project team should have the authority to decide how and when those resources are utilized. The second requirement is for the team to communicate with the customer in a language used by the customer. This may require at least one person on the team being fluent in the customer's native language. During product design there will be a lot of liaison with the customer and therefore it may be more effective if all...

Efficient Product Data Sharing in Collaboration Life Cycles

Industries, such as the automotive and aviation industry are developing proprietary solutions to make the collaboration with their partners more effective 1 . Different aspects of collaboration should be regarded to increase its effectiveness. Important aspects of collaboration are e.g. processes, communication, project management and product data sharing. Additionally, the intensity of the cross company integration of processes, projects and product data should be enhanced to improve the success of the collaboration.

Lump Sum or Firm Fixed Price

Unless all, or at least most, of the details of the project are known and specified, this contracting method may not be appropriate. Unknown details, that are the responsibility of the contractor, will force the contractor to inflate the bid price in order to protect against serious unrecoverable cost overruns. However, this process can work well for the experienced and organized contractor, who can benefit from effective project management by value-engineering cost savings, thereby increasing effective profit margin. This method is generally not recommended for emergency or other time-sensitive situations in which complete plans are typically not developed, or in cases in which there are many other circumstances out of the contractor's control, such as weather hazards. A hybrid version

Step 14 Final Report andor Contract Proposal

The proposal should also include the proposed project management team, further detail on the proposed implementation plan, and a Gantt chart indicating the project implementation schedule. Chapter 40 provides an example of project implementation Gantt Chart. Finally, it should clearly define the roles of the contractor and the host facility during the implementation and service phases of the project.

242 Forecasts and Reality

Reasonable person have incurred those costs, or canceled the project A related used and useful test asks, Were those facilities actually needed or Should a cheaper power source have been built Expenditure by utilities have been disallowed for many reasons. Some costs were unreasonable, such as cost overruns that could have been avoided with better project management. Others were in the category of errors in judgment but only in hindsight. An example is a decision to build a generating plant that turned out to be larger than necessary. In many cases, expenditures by the utility were disallowed even though they were outside the control of the management. Examples were delay in regulatory action, regulatory requirements for major post-TIM-2 changes in equipment, high interest rates, and inflation. The timing of prudence review is such that a disallowance must be absorbed by investors or the utility must enter into an expensive lawsuit. As a consequence of unhappy experience, utility...

Introduction to the project studies

From the studies described in Chapters 4 to 10, it can be appreciated that each design task is unique. Projects can take several different forms of investigation. Each one requires a different form of study. This is illustrated in the variation of work described. One of the tasks for the project management team in the early stages of the design process is to identify the type of work that is necessary to successfully complete the project.

114 Design Assessments

For the costing Pegler gives as an example the function of a distillation column bypass. Costs associated with this would include those of the valve, piping, piping supports, insulation and foundations process design, engineering design and project management valve and piping support purchasing and expediting construction

How is this implemented

Successful implementation of this requirement depends on managers having current details of the capability of the process at their disposal. At the higher levels of management, a decision will be made as whether the organization has the inherent capability to meet the specific requirements. At the lower levels, resources planning focuses on the detail, identifying specific equipment, people, materials, capacity and most important, the time required. A common approach is to use a project-planning tool such as Microsoft Project that facilitates the development of Gannt Charts and PERT Charts and the ability to predict resources levels in terms of manpower and programme time. Other planning tools will be needed to predict process throughput and capability. The type of resources to be determined might include any of the following

Job Meetings and Minutes

Regular job meetings, attended by representatives of each prime contractor and the Project Manager for the host owner, should be held on a weekly or bi-weekly basis. In cases where a CM firm is used, the CM firm may serve as the Project Manager. In the case of performance contracting, the Project Manager will be an employee of the ESCo. Design group representatives, subcontractors, suppliers, and material persons will attend when required by the Project Manager. The Project Manager will chair this meeting, take minutes, and publish a conference memorandum which will be distributed to the home office, the design group, the owner host, all prime contractors, and all others in attendance. Daily meetings should be held with the daily participants. The Site Superintendent should chair these meetings and distribute daily minutes, or summarize verbally and include in the daily report. Special meetings for clarification, design planning, scheduling, coordination, crises, etc., are called as...

53006 Design Responsibility

The design responsibility and process for geotextile design are illustrated in Figures 530-4 and 5. The Regional Project Development Office, in particular the Regional Project Manager, is responsible to initiate and develop all Standard Specification geotextile designs, except for roadway separation and soil stabilization applications, which are initiated and developed by the Regional Materials Laboratory. The Regional Materials Laboratory assists the Regional Project Manager with Standard Specifications underground drainage and permanent erosion control designs. Once the Regional Project Manager or Materials Laboratory has determined that a geotextile is appropriate, development of a Standard Specification geotextile design includes the development of plan details showing the plan location and cross-section of the geotextile installation. Standard details for geotextiles as provided in the Plans Preparation Manual may be used or modified to adapt to the specific project situation....

2 Implementation Phase

The VE team's recommendations are included in the Final Report and Workbook. The project manager reviews and evaluates the recommendations and prepare a VE Decision Document. This document has a specific response for each of the VE team recommendations and a summary statement containing the managers' decisions and schedule for implementation regarding further project development.

214 Control of Collaborative Design Process

The design process has to respond more and more to restrictive cost, delay and quality objectives designers are increasingly dislocated through the extended enterprise technologies are more and more integrated. In this context, design control should be more reactive and take into account external constraints. Therefore, the collaborative design processes control requires an understanding of the context, in which those processes take place 10 in order to modify them to facilitate the actors' work. The GRAI model 11 offers a framework to control the creation, the deployment, the follow-up and the evolution of the adapted design context to improve collaboration. The GRAI reference model 12 describes the engineering design system as composed of 3 subsystems the decision system, the technological system and the information system. The project manager's decisions to organize the technological system are structured according to time criteria (Horizon-Period), defining the strategic, tactical...

313 Research Method The Design Experiment

The experimental subjects were four undergraduate mechanical engineering students, one from each university. Each participant was given a distinct role. There were roles for a project manager, a frame designer, a link designer, and an ergonomics specialist. other via the project manager. In this case, the designers were asked to document their activities to get the most complete information about the design process.

Figurehead or practitioner

There are, however, two schools of thought. One is that the management representative is a figurehead rather than a practitioner and is a role established solely to meet ISO 9000. Hence the CEO would either take on the role or would appoint one of the executive directors as the management representative in addition to his her regular job, the role being to satisfy themselves that a quality system is being established, implemented, and maintained. Such a person may not necessarily employ the resources to do this. These resources would be dispersed throughout the organization. While the system is being developed, a project manager is assigned to coordinate resources and direct the project towards its completion. After the system is fully operational, a quality system manager takes over to maintain and improve the system, who with a small staff manages the audit and improvement programs. The other school of thought views the management representative as a practitioner and not a...

352Implementing a Plan for a New Factory Building

Chapter 4 outlines this program is considerable detail. The manufacturing company should set-up a building committee and appoint a project manager. The PM becomes the funnel for all information transfer in both directions. The building committee is his sounding board, and in most cases approval authority, during all phases from this point on. All of the flow charts, analyses, preliminary block plans, layouts, and studies that have been prepared by the ME, and others, should be provided to the design agent, through the PM. The company activities do not stop at this point, since there will be continual discussions and joint decisions made during design and construction. The company will want to check most of the work done as it progresses. They will help in obtaining permits, coordination, and approvals from the local regulatory agencies, and in general making certain that all factors internal and external to the construction proceed smoothly. This usually involves some...

235 A Distributed Federated Solution

The deliverables in the project are a requirements specification RS1 by OEM and a functional design FD1 to be delivered by TKS. These documents have as a life cycle (1) For-Information, (2) For Acceptance, (3) Accepted. When RS1 version 3 receives internal status For-Review in the local PDM system, it is checked-in in the Federal system as version 1 with federal status For Information. TKS is notified, checks-in RS1 in its own local PDM system. TKS engineers inspect the document and propose a few improvements. These changes are communicated to the OEM so that they can be implemented together with the changes proposed by the internal reviewers. Finally the internal version 6 is released locally in OEM and checked-in in the federal system as version 2 with status For-Acceptance. The TKS project manager downloads this version in his local PDM system, has it accepted by his engineers and promotes the federal status to Accepted. Then he releases the design order for FD1 and a similar...

In Existing Buildings

The CC team consists of a project manager, one or more CC engineers and CC technicians, and one or more designated members of the facility operating team. The primary responsibilities of the team members are shown in Table 26.1. The project manager can be an owner representative or a CC provider representative. It is essential that the engineers have the qualifications and experience to perform the work specified in the Project Manager 1. Coordinate the activities of building personnel and the commissioning team Approach The owner's representative, the CC project manager and the CC project engineer will meet. The expectations and interest of the building owner in comfort improvements, utility cost reductions, and maintenance cost reductions will be discussed and documented. The availability and technical skills of in-house technicians will be discussed. After this discussion, a walkthrough must be conducted to identify the feasibility of the owner expectations for comfort performance...

283 Study of a Pdmplm Solution for a SME

To compare the As-Is and To-Be Data for As-Is process simulation (e.g., execution times of activities, required resources and availability) have been acquired through interviews with the process owners simulation results have been compared with those recovered from company documents related to the design process of a new product. To-Be process simulation has been performed deriving execution times and probability that mistakes can occur for the new activities (i.e., not present in the As-Is process) from information provided by the process experts. A reduction of the execution times have been taken into account either for those activities affected by the introduction of a PDM system, or those related to the development of physical prototypes using rapid prototyping. Comparing results obtained by simulating the As-Is and To-Be processes the following conclusions can be drawn. A reduction of about 35 the development time has been estimated as shown in Figure 28.7. Note that the...

829 Quality Assurance

Quality assurance may be based on inputs and process and or outputs. It is generally prudent to utilize both. Inputs and process for hazard identification include the qualifications, training, experience and plant knowledge of the team performing the task the methods of hazard identification used and their suitability the project documentation available, its comprehensiveness and accuracy and the time available for the task.

Physically Challenged

The fees for A& E firms range from 4 to 20 depending on the range and scope of design services. The contracts can vary from minimal schematic design or master planning to complete design and contract administration. For complex projects or tight schedules, A& E firms can provide on-site field representatives to guide construction. In most areas, licensed design professionals are required to seal the construction documents prior to permitting. The choices are made easier by looking at project schedule and cost information developed in the preprogramming phase. Each unique project will create new challenges to the designer, to improve upon what has been done before. With the complexities inherent in preparing hundreds of pages of contract documents, it is often safest to rely on professionals who are in the mainstream of the specialty you need.

22182Replacement Costs

A common practice for existing facilities is to propose equipment replacement using energy efficiency as justification. In general, it is easy to justify the differential cost of upgrades to higher efficiency equipment, but often impossible to justify the entire replacement project on energy savings alone. Burdening the project cost with unrelated expenses, such as equipment replacement that was due anyway, makes the payback look worse and creates an unfair perception of long paybacks. Whenever possible, energy improvement expenses should be fairly separated from normal replacement project costs. Equipment that is near the end of its useful life should be a planned replacement expense, regardless of the desire to reduce energy costs. If replaced early, the remaining value of the equipment may be appropriately 'charged' to the energy project, but not the entire project cost since this would need to be done anyway.

Savings Verification Programs

In a true shared savings arrangement, the contractor investor will generally take on maintenance, and in some cases operational responsibilities. Since the contractor investor must produce the amount of savings guaranteed over the life of the contract, it is necessary to have a sound element of control over equipment performance. This increases to project costs. The percentage of savings provided to the host facility will also be lower as a result of savings metering and verification (M& V) procedures incurred by the contractor. The M& V procedures used will vary depending on the specific technology application and the level of certainty agreed upon by the contractor financier and host customer. M& V procedures based on periodic metering or inspection and standardized engineering calculations are relatively inexpensive, while procedures based on continuous monitoring and sophisticated regression analysis can be very costly.

Design Management Approach

The Design Team must evaluate the viability of the feasibility study conclusions and solutions and value engineer for practicality and cost-effectiveness. Involvement of designers in the analysis process generally proves to be cost-effective as it can eliminate certain design assumption errors that could result in underestimation of project costs or selection of systems or components whose installation is impractical or would present significant logistical difficulty.

Technical books in alphabetical order

John Fielding is the Professor of Aircraft Design at the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield, England. This book is mainly aimed at the detailed design phase which follows the preliminary design studies. It contains a lot of valuable information that students will find useful in the layout stage of their design work. The book will help students to get a complete overview of all types of aircraft and aircraft project management.

212 Collective Work Analysis

This taxonomy permits the evaluation of the collaborative work according to the activity definition, the relationship freedom and the collaboration experiment of the actors. Consequently the project manager identifies which characteristics they could act on to increase collaboration in order to satisfy design objectives. For each type defined in this taxonomy, some action levels are identified to inform the project manager on their capabilities to change the design context.

Process Contingencies

This means the engineer should strive to do the best job he can on each estimate, and apply adequate factors to keep the cost conservative. All project costs seem to grow as the project matures. Few projects reduce in scope or cost as more information is developed. A Rand Corporation study documents these cost increases as plans mature (Reference 1).

Supplementary Fired Systems

Increasing exhaust gas temperatures can improve steam turbine cycle efficiencies, depending on engine and system type. Also, since the capacity of the gas turbine or reciprocating engine can be reduced relative to total plant output, overall project costs may be reduced.

Emerging Issues In The Eia Process

After twenty-five years of experience in applying the EIA process in the United States, the process is maturing and the resultant procedures and documentation are becoming more technically sound and appropriate in including the environment in project planning and decision making. However, issues continue to emerge related to the process. These issues include new topical items and the application of new tools and techniques. Emerging items are related to cumulative impacts, focused activities related to the EIA process, the inclusion of risk assessment, the need to address impacts on biodiversity (Council on Environmental Quality 1993) and global issues, the importance of monitoring and environmental auditing, particularly as related to major projects, the need for environmentally responsible project management, and the emerging use of market-based approaches in project planning and evaluation. The need to consider the EIA process in relation to project management and follow-on is...

31 Responsibilities of the plant engineer

In today's plant, the plant engineering function has been reduced to project management, coordination of contractors that provide design, construction, operations and maintenance of plant facilities. This trend has seriously diluted the plant's ability to design, install, operate and maintain critical production systems. Hopefully, this trend will be short-lived and more plants will return to traditional plant engineering functions. This book and the information it contains is designed to provide the practical skills required by a fully functional, effective plant engineering functional group.

General Verification Process Approaches

The M& V process may, therefore, be based on engineering estimates, adjusted utility cost analysis, facility-wide metering, and or equipment specific pre- and post-construction metering. More extensive programs add significantly to project costs, but also provide more security in verifying system performance, contractual guarantees, and or in allowing for ongoing system modifications based on monitored performance data. With the continued advancements in direct digital control (DDC) and communications technology, extensive long-term system metering has become less costly, rendering this comprehensive approach increasingly economical. Three general M& V approaches are 1) Projects for which the potential to perform and

33005 Project Definition Phase

Once the project has been formally adopted into the WSDOT operating program, project development continues. Design of projects is further refined by a project manager through an interdisciplinary team process. Projects continue with the development of environmental and design documentation.

411The Building Committee

The first thing which must be done by the manufacturing firm is to form a building committee. Upper-level management must be represented, preferably with full decisionmaking and budget authority. This representative may not be the company's eventual project manager (PM) for design and construction, but it must be a person who is strong willed, experienced, and capable of maintaining focus on the big picture. His or her primary responsibilities are to ensure that the design feedback supplied to the design firm is the best possible, and that the overall project cost targets are met. All area representatives offer their insights and desires. It is up to this senior manager to resolve conflicts and guide the committee to clear, enforceable agreements and directives. Often this person is responsible for the ultimate building program, whether an outside consultant is hired for the actual preparation of the document or it is done in-house. The size and makeup of the committee will depend on...

Step 2 Engineering and Construction Planning

This includes the preparation of project flow charts, piping and instrument diagrams, general arrangement drawings, equipment layouts, process interface layouts, building, structural and foundation drawings, electrical diagrams, and specifying an energy management system, if required.

The Influence of Time

Factors which may have an impact on time as a determining factor might include the market for the end product, its sensitivity to time, the penalties and benefits for delayed delivery, and also the impact on the cost of construction. Construction costs over the long term have increased along with the inflation rate, often influencing the cost of living more than other factors. We have seen the cost of construction components fluctuate more than 100 in less than 90 days. These swings are most often driven by economic changes such as are caused by wars, by legislation, or by naturally destructive forces such as hurricanes. Labor costs must also be considered. Adding more people to perform tasks does not necessarily improve their performance. There is a maximum number of people who can work on welding one section of pipe, for example, so we must schedule work tasks during construction in such a manner as to maximize their performance. Overtime and additional shifts can be used to shorten...

12Basic definition

In addition, skills in business financial management, personnel supervision, project management, contracting, and training are necessary to the successful fulfillment of plant engineering responsibilities. The function is fundamentally a technical one, requiring a thorough technical engineering background through education and or experience. But beyond it's most basic level, a broad range of skills is needed.

21005 Hearings

Environmental documents address the social, economic, and environmental effects as described in Chapter 220. The project environmental documentation is the first step in the hearing procedures sequence. Each step of the hearing procedures is dovetailed into the environmental process and is important in achieving the appropriate project documentation. Corridor and design hearings are not normally required for Environmental Assessment, SEPA Checklist, and categorically excluded projects, but the opportunity for an environmental hearing might be required. When environmental hearings are not required, an informational meeting may serve as a useful forum for public involvement in the environmental process.

Blowout

The distance at the surface between the relief well and the blowout is a function of overall project management however, the closer the better. The cost of relief well operations is exponential with displacement. However, some projects are managed in such a fashion that the relief well project manager has no choice but to put the relief well a mile away in a bad direction. Ideally, overall project management will permit the relief well to be drilled within 1,000 feet of the blowout with deviation angles below 15 degrees. The best direction is that which takes advantage of the regional drift and fracture orientation tendencies.

Guideway Costs

The following cost summary shows that a stage one guideway would cost about half of what a typical maglev system ,rOuld cost. Costs are Smillion per mile for a double guideway in flat rural conditions, and do not include sales tax, project management, contingency allowance, or fee, all of which add about 60 percenL

284 Conclusions

The As-Is model provides a view of the current process - where we are now -and an understanding of changes required. The As-Is process model cannot be a pure translation of Total Quality Management procedures nevertheless, these procedures can be a useful tool to capture process knowledge if properly integrated with interviews of process owners or other information sources, such as project management systems to collect historical data on activity duration. An envisaged future research direction is the possibility of using automated text analysis software based on semantic processor technology to extract information from text-based business procedures. The To-Be model was used as a decision making tool and has permitted the evaluation of how a new business paradigm, such as PLM, can improve the process, the investments needed, and provided information about how new tools can leverage industry best practices.

Summary

There are many other considerations in relief well operations that are related to overall project management. Large sums of money can be saved by the operator if overall management is considered. The relief well operations need to be coordinated with the total control effort. This will affect relief well location, for example, which can make or break an operation. Also, a relief well operation is not just a directional operation. It is a drilling operation, a well control operation and a logging operation as well as a directional operation. Needless to say, these considerations can impact the total cost significantly.

Operational Service

While project acceptance indicates the successful completion of the construction phase, it is often necessary to properly train operating personnel and establish a long-term OM& R program prior to acceptance. This ensures a successful transition from construction to the operational phase.

211 Introduction

When the resolution steps are known (routine design process) the project is structured according to different activities, which transform the product knowledge. In the other cases, design could be considered as a creative or innovative process, and activities do not structure the project. Design must be identified as a process that supports the emergence of solutions 5 . In this case, the design project is organized to favour the collaboration between the process actors and the project manager strives to create design situations that facilitating the emergence of solutions. He she decides on the adapted organization, favouring collaborative work and supporting the sharing of information and knowledge. This paper focuses on the study of collaborative knowledge, required by the design actors of the design environment, and is implemented to respond to a need for collaboration. We will show how exchanged knowledge during the design process allows a...

710 Implementation

Most detailed programs for plant-related projects are prepared using simple critical path analysis (CPA) techniques. CPA is a well-known and familiar technique to most engineers and is incorporated into most modern PC-based planning and scheduling systems. Such a system typically has the following features that a plant project manager will find useful

Quality Control

Routine inspections are carried out by the Quality Control Officer (QCO). This may be a full-time position at the job site for very large projects, or may be a duty performed by the Site Superintendent or Project Manager. Inspection items are established in a checklist included as part of the Quality Control Plan. A daily production inspection report should be maintained and serve as a primary vehicle for the quality control documentation process. This report should list daily (as well as longer duration) project information, as well as any safety and quality concerns.

441 Design Firms

The project architect and project manager in the design firm will be the most important people during document preparation. For these reasons it is important to choose a firm with whom you can communicate completely. The importance of each role in communications can be seen in the earlier diagram (see Figure 4.1). The three PMs are the real points of contact, so choose them with that in mind.

2Design Variances

Evaluate upgrade (EU) in a matrix cell indicates that an existing nonstandard condition must be evaluated to determine the impacts and cost effectiveness of upgrading to the applicable design level. The decision whether or not to upgrade, and its analyses and justification, must be provided in the project documentation. See Chapter 330.

33008Process Review

These are generic forms used for all project reviews. Copies of these working documents are available for reference when assembling project documentation. OSC Design Office, Project Development maintains current copies on Exchange. For paper copies or a specific electronic address contact the OSC Project Development Branch.

Pre Construction

To initiate the pre-construction activities, the Construction Team and their subcontractors, along with the principal Design Team members, should hold a detailed planning session to discuss all aspects of the project, from the design phase through final completion. At this session, the project schedule will be reviewed and modified as necessary, based on the current status of the project and the full range of planned activities culminating in commissioning of all project components. Input from all principal team members, as well as subcontractors, should be required so that agreement can be reached on schedules, processes, and key milestones for all remaining project activities. As noted previously in the design approach discussion, during the design phase, the Construction Team can be involved in carefully reviewing the equipment and system selections, the methods of construction, and the scheduling implications of material and equipment selections as related to project costs and...

Deliverables

All cost estimates should be submitted under separate cover with the design. The life-cycle cost analysis, which was provided during the feasibility stage, will then be updated with design-specific data as required. In some cases, project costs and savings could change significantly. This might occur if the Design Team rules out the equipment selected by the Study Team due to practical design considerations, such as size or weight limitations. Unless a suitable alternate system had already been evaluated, both the engineering and financial study must be re-run based on the characteristics of the alternate system or systems.

Procurement

The process for establishing the SOW and selecting contractors is described in Step 12 (Budget Estimates of Incremental Capital Cost) of the Detailed Feasibility Study presented in Chapter 41. As with material selection, this process now moves to final selection and firm contractual commitments. Whether performed by the host facility, construction contractor, design-build contractor, performance contractor, or CM firm, it is necessary to have the estimating skill and experience to fully evaluate the bids of the subcontractors to not only ensure the lowest reasonable project costs possible, but to ensure that all work has been included and, that ultimately, the project will be successfully installed.

Tubing

Entirely new facility, a careful analysis of auxiliary needs must be conducted and a master plan must be developed. The analysis must involve all operations personnel who can provide input about operational requirements for each auxiliary subsystem. Such input early in the project can help avoid costly errors further along. Outside sources, such as consultants and vendors, can provide new and innovative ideas for either increasing capacity or reducing project costs.

215 Example

The example that illustrates the proposed concepts is developed in the IPPOP project. It concerns the design of the fixing between the rack-and-pinion and the support of a translation system of a bowl on a mixer. This design phase is representative of the needs for collaboration that could appear during a design project. Three design actors are involved to co-design the fixation a design expert, a manufacturing expert and a material expert. In our example, IPPOP identifies that the third expert modifies data, which concerns the material of the fixing system. As this data is critical to the manufacturing methods engineer, a conflict could appear between two experts and IPPOP notifies the project manager. He she creates and deploys a design environment that groups the three experts together, in order to develop a dynamic of collaboration between them to solve the conflict. Before the creation of the new design environment, the design process was sequential and the design activities'...

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Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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