1351Boiler and pressure plant

Boilers and pressure vessels can be insured against explosion and collapse, which provides for damage to the insured plant, surrounding property and, in addition, liability for damage to third-party property and injury to third-party persons. This cover can be extended to include full sudden and unforeseen damage which, as far as boilers and pressure vessels are concerned, includes overheating, frost, cracking, water hammer action, leakage between the sections of sectional heating boilers and...

1353Cranes and lifting machinery

The types of plant falling under this heading are many and varied, and insurance covers that are offered are equally varied, falling into the categories of 2. Accidental extraneous damage only or 3. Sudden and unforeseen damage, which will include, in addition to the electrical and mechanical breakdown, accidental causes such as toppling, overloading and collision. Depending on the type of machine in question and the operations or use to which the machine is put, there are numerous extensions...

123 Types of coating and their uses

A convenient method of classifying paint coatings is by their curing mechanism. The process by which the wet film turns into a solid one has a significant effect on the properties of both application and durability. However, within a particular generic type the formulation can vary, and one manufacturer's product may be superior to another's. The general lack of standards and changes in the use of raw materials by manufacturers means that testing cannot directly compare except different...

6116 Details and specification of construction

Design for durability, as defined above, will be negated if it does not take into account the essential need for ease of maintenance or ignores sound specification of workmanship and constructional details. Deterioration factors notorious for shortening the life of a building include the ingress of moisture and structural or thermal movement. Building Regulations and Codes of Practice, all fully referred to in the National Building Specification, cover necessary safeguards against these and...

22The Institution of Plant Engineers

The Institution of Plant Engineers (IPlantE) had its origins in the Second World War. During this period, engineers who found themselves responsible for the operation and maintenance of the large excavators and other mobile plant brought from the US to work open cast coal met together for the exchange of information and to discuss their problems. These meetings were so successful that the engineers concerned decided to continue them in a more formal manner through the medium of a properly...

Comparison of coatings within this classification

Phenolic coatings Phenolic is reacted with formaldehyde under heat to form a completely insoluble material. They are usually applied in an alcohol solution by spray, dip or roller. During their curing, they release water, which must be removed. They have maximum chemical and solvent resistance but poor alkaline resistance. Epoxy phenolic coatings These materials are also cured at relatively high temperatures and are made by the reaction of the epoxy resin with the phenolic resin. They are...

156 Plant and installation

In order to operate the prime movers described in the previous sections it is necessary to provide auxiliary equipment for the start-up, steady operation and shutdown of the basic equipment as well as for monitoring and controlling its performance. The need also arises for the maintenance of the plant that invokes the provision of cranage and lay-down areas in the engine room. The following describes these features for the various types of prime movers. The driven machines (i.e. the electrical...

Insurance Buildings and Risks

14.3 Business interruption insurance 14 187 14.6.4 Installation and maintenance 14 188 14.7 Auto-sprinkler installations 14 188 14.8 Automatic fire alarms 14 188 14.9.1 Flammable liquids 14 189 14.9.3 Electrical equipment 14 189 14.10 Security insurance 14 189 14.11 Theft insurance policy terms and conditions 14 189 14.13 Planning for security 14 190 14.14 Security objectives 14 190 14.16 Site perimeter security 14 191 14.16.2 Security lighting 14 191 14.18 Doors and shutters 14 192 14.21...

167 Power factor correction

Power factor in an alternating current circuit is defined as the ratio of actual circuit power in watts (W) to the apparent power in voltage amperes (VA). The need for correction arises from fact that the majority of A.C. electrical loads take from the supply a lagging quadruple current (voltage amperes reactive, var) and thus operates at a lagging power factor due to the reactive (rather than capacitive) nature of their construction. Most industrial installations comprise a combination of one...

1464 Installation and maintenance

Equipment should be purchased from reputable manufacturers. They should be located at clearly defined fire points. All equipment should be recharged after it has been used. Manufacturers' instructions for maintenance and recharging must be followed closely. Regular inspection and maintenance of all firefighting equipment is essential, otherwise it is liable to deteriorate and prove unserviceable when needed. Staff who may require to use the extinguishers must be trained both in selecting the...

75 Processsite layout modeling

Site and factory layout designs are needed when new installations are being planned or changes to existing facilities are investigated. New layouts are examined when increased efficiency is being sought and when plant managers are planning expansions to the existing installations. There is also a need for plant managers to anticipate the changing requirements of both site and plant over future years. When a new installation is being planned, the site requirements will be predetermined, but when...

Natural convection plane surfaces Qc CTS

The factor C and index n can be assumed to have the following values for plane surfaces of differing orientations Horizontal - downward heat flow C 1.3 n 1.25 Vertical C 1.9 n 1.25 Horizontal - upward heat flow C D 2.5 n D 1.25 However, as the Grashof and Prandtl numbers can be different to determine, the following formula, which gives a close approximation, can be used for cylinders freely exposed to air Qr heat loss by radiation (W m2), Qc heat loss by convection (W m2), E surface emissivity...

823 Liquidated damages and loss andor expense

This is an aspect of a contract which should not be contemplated by either party at the outset of a contract. However, it is common for the client to set a figure for liquidated damages, which he considers that he will genuinely lose if the contract is not completed on time, and should not be confused with a penalty clause, which is for punitive damages. The expression non-liquidated damage means actual losses, which are incurred by a client, and could be claimed in the absence of an agreement...

23 Aims of the Institution

The aims of the Institution of Plant Engineers are 1. To bring together those already qualified by the attainment of such standards of knowledge, training, conduct and experience as are desirable in the profession of plant engineering 2. To promote the education and provide for the examination of students in the profession of plant engineering 3. To encourage, advise on and take part in the education, training and retraining of those engaged in plant engineering activities at all levels 4. To...

Cpr3 ta cvj2 ti cpt3 r2

By introducing isentropic efficiencies of the turbine n1 and compressor nc the turbine work output is given as The efficiency of the gas turbine depends on the isen-tropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine, but in practice, these cannot be improved substantially, as this depends on blade design and manufacture. However, the major factor affecting both efficiency and output of a given machine is the turbine inlet (or combustion) temperature, and this is dictated by metallurgical...

673Types of system

There are many types of detection and suppression systems. The one selected should be compatible with the likely fire source and be consistent with the likely locations and fire size within the building. It is essential to discuss the requirements for structural protection, compartmentalization, emergency lighting, detection, alarms, call points, suppression, means of escape and signage with the applicable local authority, fire brigade or insurance company personnel before finalizing designs.

1393Publications by other organizations

Other organizations that represent groups of companies with a common interest also issue rates, regulations and guidance notes on subjects that come within their respective orbits. Occasionally, the HSE will advise users of a particular type of plant, commodity or material to observe the appropriate document(s), and the user will then ignore this advice at his peril. Apart from this aspect, they do not have any official force. At the same time, most of them contain excellent information and...

741 Collection

The objective of the production process is to produce the right goods of the right quality and at the right price in order to generate a financial profit from the capital investment, but the plant layout fundamentally affects this objective. The essential requirement for any design exercise is a thorough understanding of the working medium. For layouts, this means collecting sufficient data to describe those characteristics of the company which affect the layout. Data collection is time...

82Approaching the contract

A contract is made when the essential elements have been fulfilled and the offer and acceptance communicated, and, apart from contracts involving land, can be verbal. A common misconception is that a party signs a contract. In reality, a party signs a document, which contains the terms of the contract being entered into. Almost all contract documents omit many matters, which are important, and the reason for this is that the law says that certain matters are implied to be contained within a...

816 Site meetings

Meetings are a necessity to keep a contract moving. The first meeting is normally at the offices of either the client or consulting engineers, and is a pre-contract meeting. A pre-contract meeting is a gathering of all interested parties to discuss the format of the contract and is a chance for views to be expressed, prior to the actual formation of a contract, which very often takes place after the meeting. Matters which are likely to be on the agenda of a precontract meeting, are 1. Names and...

Comparison of paints within this classification

Alkyds These are the most widely used of all air-oxidizing coatings and have the broadest use both industrially and domestically. They are usually classified according to the proportion of drying oil to synthetic resin (known as 'oil length'). The oil length influences all properties (e.g. chemical resistance, viscosity, flexibility and hardness). Long oil-length alkyds (e.g. 60 per cent and over of oil) are the most suitable materials for site application on a wide range of surfaces under...

A Conditions of Contract

General - This is a description of the type of contract and the relationship with other parties, i.e. whether the contract is to be nominated, main or domestic fixed price of fluctuating. 2. Interpretation of Terms - Name of all known parties and their positions. Some terms may be outlined, i.e. month means calendar month and shall means action by the contractor. 3. Form of Bid - A more detailed description is given regarding the form of bid and of prime cost and provisional sums, handling and...

31 Responsibilities of the plant engineer

The increasing mechanization of industrial installations has resulted in the use of more complex and costly equipment and this has greatly increased the responsibilities of the plant engineer. In today's environment, the plant engineer must have a practical, well-rounded knowledge of the fundamentals of civil, mechanical, electrical, process and environmental engineering. In addition, plant engineers must have a basic knowledge of business management, statistical analysis, communications and...

Contents

1 Definition and Organization of the Plant Engineering Function 3 The Role of the Plant Engineer 4 Physical Considerations in Site Selection 12 Paint Coatings for the Plant Engineer 13 Insurance Plant and Equipment 14 Insurance Buildings and Risks 16 Electrical Distribution and Installation 255 27S 2B5 S21 SS5 S5S SB7 415 429 4S7 447 4G5 4B1 5GS 517

152Generation of electrical power

Diesels, gas turbines and steam turbines are the more commonly used prime movers for the generation of electrical power. Additionally, the steam turbine can be employed in combination with either the diesel or gas turbine for combined cycle operation. The following describes the basic operation of each of these prime movers in relation to its associated power-generating scheme and reviews the more significant factors affecting performance and efficiency. Further information on the actual plant...

Insulation of hot water storage vessels pipes and ducts

This third and last section of Approved Document L is not intended to apply to storage and piping systems for commercial and industrial processes. It concerns only the central heating and the domestic hot water supply of all buildings. The standards are presented in three sections for Insulation of hot water storage vessels The requirements for these tanks and cylinders will be met if the heat loss is not greater than 90 W m2. The thickness of insulation needed will therefore vary not only...

7111 Justification for consultants

Planning the layout of a manufacturing facility should be an infrequent activity for an operational manufacturing company. The staff of such a company will normally be fully committed to the day-to-day activity of assisting factory output, and they will rarely have the time to consider the design problems associated with plant layout. They do have intimate knowledge of the products and processes but not the practice and techniques of the design of plant layout. In these circumstances, it is...

26 Registration with the Engineering Council

An individual engineer's registration with the Engineering Council is a further valuable indication of professional attainment and standing. Royal Charter established the Engineering Council in 1981 to Table 2.1 Summary of IPlantE membership requirements Table 2.1 Summary of IPlantE membership requirements Engaged in engineering studies and training 4 years combined training and experience Addresses for further information 2 11 1. Promote and develop the science and best practice of engineering...

154 Factors influencing choice

The basic schemes for electrical power generation and combined heat and power have been identified in the earlier sections of this chapter. When assessing the alternatives to meet a specific project need, many factors will strongly influence the size, number, and type of generator as well as its specification and scope. While it is not intended to cover all of these aspects, the more important issues are discussed. The petroleum industry is responsible for the production of a wide range of fuel...

143Business interruption insurance

Business interruption policies (also known as loss of profits or consequential loss) are designed to cover the trading loss due to the occurrence of the fire or other insured peril. This loss is normally identified either by a reduction in turnover as a result of the disruption caused to the business or by increased costs incurred to minimize the loss of turnover, or indeed a combination of the two. The cover under the policy does not last for an indefinite period after the loss but is...

65 Obtaining approval to build

When contemplating the construction of a new industrial building or alterations to an existing one the statutory requirements and the powers available to the authority responsible for issuing approval should be taken into account. The exact procedures will, necessarily, be dependent upon the location (i.e. district and or country) and the type of industrial building proposed. The approval process can be divided into two stages. These are to obtain planning and building control approval. We...

1363 Recognition of defects in operational plant

During this training, an engineer surveyor can expect to be shown examples of the defects that he is likely to encounter. Many inspecting authorities have a 'black museum' of such defects or they are described and illustrated by photographs in the training literature. He will also be instructed, both in the classroom and on-site, about locations where defects are likely to occur. Most surveyors develop an 'instinct', which helps them to find defects, and this can only be acquired through...

53 Ecology and pollution

Urban, rural and industrial developments may have profound effects on the surrounding environment. Such effects can defeat the object of development, in that the negative environmental impact may outweigh the benefits. In the case of natural resources, inappropriate development may even destroy the resource base. If environmental matters are accorded adequate consideration during the planning and management of development programs and projects it is possible for pollutants to be assimilated. As...

Column layout

It is self-evident that fewer permanent obstructions within the perimeter provide a greater potential flexibility of operations. However, larger spans are bought only at the expense of structure. Columns may also perform other functions, apart from roof support 1. Support of intermediate-level platforms 2. Restraint to partition walls 4. Services (pipework, ductwork, etc.) support. Flat roofs. Flat roofs are popular with architects due to their reduced visual impact. However, they generally...

18

18.1.1 Road delivery vehicles 18 275 18.1.3 River and coastal tankers 18 275 18.2.6 Heating requirements 18 277 18.3.2 Underground storage 18 280 18.4.2 Handling temperatures 18 280 18.4.3 Handling equipment 18 280 Crude oil is processed at oil refineries, generally located around coastal areas, and then transferred to a nationwide network of oil fuel terminals, from where it is distributed to customers. Road delivery vehicles, rail tank wagons or coastal tankers - depending on the location of...

175 Voltmeters and ammeters

These are manufactured according to several different principles, each being suitable for a particular application. The more common types are discussed briefly below. This consists of a coil mounted between the poles of a permanent magnet. When a current flows through the coil a magnetic field is created and the interaction of this field with that of the magnet produces a torque, proportional to the current in the coil, which causes the coil to rotate against the action of a spring. A pointer...

47 Landscaping on industrial and reclaimed land

In the context of overall landscaping, here we will concentrate on what is normally recognized as soft landscaping, i.e. that area which includes waterbodies and growing plants. The primary problems that have to be solved in any scheme for creating a new growing, living landscape out of a reclaimed land, are 1. Contamination in the ground. (There may be contamination in the air, but this is beyond the scope of this chapter.) 2. Soil structure and land drainage within the reclaimed ground. It is...

Glossary

AHEM The Association of Hydraulic Equipment Manufacturers Limited, 192-198 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SW1V 1DX API American Petroleum Institute, 1271 Avenue of the Americas, New York, USA ASB Association of Shell Boiler Makers, c o David L. Chaplin, The Meadows, Ryleys Lane, Alderley Edge, Cheshire SK9 7UV ANSI American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, USA ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 135 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA BASEEFA...

45 Water storage settling wells and drawoff regulations

Care must be taken when assessing water storage, as some water authorities have special powers to restrict total water storage retained for a given building and or site. Early consultation with the appropriate water authorities is also recommended when large volumes of water storage usage are anticipated, especially if heavy demand is required for industrial purposes. The necessity of water storage may be outlined as follows 1. To protect against interruption of the supply caused by burst main...

168 Motors and motor control

The principal functions that have to be met by any type of motor control gear are 1. Provision of a means of starting the motor, taking into account the requirements of torque, acceleration, load, frequency of operation and safety 2. When required, to limit the current drawn from the supply and starting 3. When necessary, to provide means of speed control, reversing, braking, etc. 4. Provision of protection for the motor itself in the case of faults and for the equipment controlling it (e.g....

153 Combined heat and power CHP

Pass Out And Back Out Turbine

The preceding section reviewed the application of popular prime movers for the generation of electrical power only. In the conversion of fuel energy to electricity it is shown that heat is rejected, either in the exhaust of a diesel or gas turbine or, alternatively, in the condenser of a thermal power plant. It can be seen that by applying these machines to provide both heat and electricity the total energy recovery can be much greater and efficiency thereby improved. Combined heat and power...

179 Cathode ray oscilloscopes

The cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) is an extremely versatile instrument for monitoring electrical signals, for diagnostic testing and for studying time-varying phenomena. A stream of electrons is produced from a heated cathode and accelerated through an electron 'gun' towards a fluorescent screen (Figure 17.16). The stream passes through a coil which focuses it into a beam which then passes between pairs of vertical and horizontal plates. Electric fields are created between these plates which...