Air Preheater


FIGURE 7-9. TOXECON configuration for mercury control in a coal-fired boiler. (From Eastman, M. L., Clean Coal Power Initiative, presented at the Clean Coal Power Conference,, November 18, 2003.)

electrical generation plants; increasing the net generating capacity of units that burn high-moisture coal; increasing the energy supply of units that burn high-moisture coal; increasing the cost-effectiveness of the country's electrical generation industry; improving the environment by reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants; and increasing the value of the country's lignite reserves [3,62]. The demonstration will be performed at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station (i.e., two 546 MW pulverized coal-fired units located at Underwood, North Dakota) and will use waste heat in two fluidized-bed driers to reduce the lignite moisture content by 10 percentage points, which is typically about 40%.

NeuCo, Inc. (Boston, Massachusetts) will design, develop, and demonstrate integrated on-line optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy Complex (three 600 MW coal-fired units) located in Baldwin, Illinois [3,62]. The modules will address sootblowing, SCR operations, overall unit thermal performance, and plant-wide profit optimization by reducing NOZ, increasing fuel efficiency, and increasing reliability. The increases in fuel efficiency (i.e., heat rate production) will provide commensurate reductions in greenhouse gases, mercury, and particulate matter. The technology platform, consisting of neural networks, algorithms, and fuzzy logic techniques, will be used to comprehensively apply optimization techniques to a variety of systems within coal power plants using existing control technologies and then will link these systems to each other.

The University of Kentucky Research Foundation of Lexington, Kentucky, in partnership with LG&E Energy Corporation of Louisville, Kentucky, will design, construct, and demonstrate an advanced coal ash beneficiation processing plant at the LG&E 2200 MW Ghent Power Plant in Ghent, Kentucky [3,62]. The process, based on hydraulic classification and froth flotation technology, separates the UBC from power plant ash or from ash disposal ponds and recycles it for use as fuel. In addition, the process upgrades the ash to make it suitable for producing a high-strength alternative to portland cement and uses a beneficiated coarse ash to produce lightweight aggregate suitable for use in concrete masonry materials such as building blocks or to be used as sand for construction applications. The new process has the potential to reduce the manufacture of portland cement, one of the highest generators of CO2 of any industrial process.

New Technologies to Produce Clean Energy from Waste Coal Piles

Waste Management and Processors, Inc. (WMPI PTY., LLC), of Gilberton, Pennsylvania, has assembled a leading technology and engineering team (i.e., Nexant, Inc., Shell Global Solutions B.V. U.S., Uhde GmbH, and SASAOL Technology, Ltd.) to design, engineer, construct, and demonstrate the first clean coal power facility in the United States using waste coal gasification as the basis for the clean power, thermal energy, and clean liquid fuels production [3,62]. The demonstration will be performed at Gilberton, Pennsylvania, and will convert wastes generated from anthracite cleaning into electric power and high-value, premium, ultra-clean transportation fuels. The plant will gasify 4700 short tons/day of coal wastes to produce a synthesis gas of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, of which most will be combusted to produce electricity (i.e., 41 MW), with a portion of the synthesis gas being converted into about 5000 barrels/day of synthetic hydrocarbon liquids via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. The Gilberton project is depicted in the block diagram in Figure 7-10. The ultra-clean transportation fuels that will be produced include naphtha, kerosene, and diesel fuel, which will be in the form of an ultra-clean, high-cetane diesel fuel that contains no sulfur

Other Fuels

Other Fuels

FIGURE 7-10. Block diagram of the WMPI Pty., LLC, process. (From DOE, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001 Including Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects, Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., July 2002.)

or aromatic hydrocarbons. The F-T naphtha formed during the F-T synthesis can be upgraded to clean-burning reformulated gasoline. F-T naphtha is also an excellent feedstock for steam cracking or olefin production or an on-board reforming feed for fuel-cell-powered vehicles. The low-smoke-point kerosene is a niche-market jet fuel. Approximately 1300 and 3800 barrels/day, respectively, of F-T naphtha and ultra-clean diesel and jet fuel will be produced.

Western Greenbrier Co-Generation, LLC (a public service entity formed to serve the interests of three municipalities in West Virginia— Rainelle, Rupert, and Quinwood), will demonstrate an 85 MW, clean coal, co-production process in Rainelle, West Virginia [3,62]. The power plant will be an innovative Alstom Power, Inc., CFB boiler system utilizing bituminous coal waste and integrated with an advanced, multipollutant control system for SOZ, NOZ, particulate matter, and mercury. An integrated co-production facility will manufacture structural bricks using ash from the boiler and wood waste from an adjacent industrial process.

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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