Table

(continued)

Project

Participant

Location

Commercial Status

Advanced coal conversion process Integrated coal/ore reduction

Blast furnace coal injection Advanced cyclone combustor Cement kiln scrubber Pulse combustor

Western

SynCoal, LLC

CPICORTM Management Co.

Bethlehem Steel Corp.

Coal Tech Corporation

Passamaquoddy Tribe

ThermoChem, Inc.

Colstrip, Montana

Vineyard, Utah

Burns Harbor,

Indiana Williamsport,

Pennsylvania Thomaston, Maine

Baltimore, Maryland

Extended continued operation

Domestic sales;

continued operation

Continued operation aNothing reported.

sales are made or if the technology continues to operate commercially at the demonstration site. Others have identified success based on patents and awards granted to Clean Coal Technology Program projects [51].

Commercial sales (as of 2000), domestic and international, resulting from the CCT Program projects include approximately 130 gasifiers, 160 fluidized-bed units, 2900 NOZ reduction units, and 200 SO2 removal units [4,51]. In addition, approximately 30 utilities have the model for coal processing for clean fuels.

Prior to the CCT Program, scrubbers capable of high SO2 removal were costly to build and difficult to maintain, placed a significant parasitic energy load on the plant output, and produced a sludge waste requiring disposal [52]. The demonstration projects conducted under the CCT Program have cut operating and capital costs in half, provided SO2 removal efficiencies of 95 to 98%, produced valuable by-products, mitigated plant efficiency losses, and captured multiple air pollutants. If CCT-developed technologies were applied to all U.S. coal-fired boilers at an average efficiency of 90%, total SO2 emissions could be further reduced by ~10 million short tons/year [52]. Currently, about one-fourth of the total U.S. coal-fired capacity has FGD units installed. The United States has about 260 units with a total capacity of 85,000 MW, which is the largest number of FGD installations in the world.

Prior to the CCT Program, NOx control technology proven in U.S. utility service was essentially nonexistent. The CCT Program has met the regulatory challenge by developing and incorporating emerging NOx control technologies into a portfolio of cost-effective compliance options for the full range of boiler types being used commercially [52]. Products of the CCT Program for NOz control include:

• Low-NOZ burners, overfire air, and reburning systems that modify the combustion process to limit NOz formation;

• Post-combustion control options using SCR and SNCR;

• Artificial-intelligence-based control systems that effectively handle numerous dynamic parameters to optimize operational and environmental performance of boilers.

As a result, over three-fourths of U.S. coal-fired power plants have installed low-NOz burners. Reburning and artificial intelligence systems have made significant market penetration as well. All sites that developed these NOZ control technologies have retained them for commercial use. In addition, several commercial installations of SCR and, to some extent, SNCR have been installed with many planned for installation in the near future.

The CCT Program has provided the foundation for power in the twenty-first century through successful demonstration of FBC and IGCC projects on a commercial scale. These technologies are inherently clean, producing negligible emissions of SO2, NOZ, and particulate matter. The IGCC demonstration projects have achieved excellent environmental performance, with emissions as low as 0.02 lb SO2 per MM Btu and 0.08 lb NOZ per MM Btu. In addition, the higher thermal efficiency processes result in significant reductions in CO2 emissions.

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