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FIGURE 5-20. Characteristic carbonization temperatures and stages. (From Van Krevelen, D. W., Coal: Typology-Physics-Chemistry-Constitution, Third ed., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993. With permission.)

To put the use of coal used for carbonization into perspective with the electrical power generation industry (i.e., using coal in combustion technologies), of the ~1065.8 million short tons of coal consumed in the United States in 2002, ~22.5 million short tons (or ~2%) was used in coke plants, as compared to ~975.9 million short tons (or ~92%) consumed by the electric power sector [32]. This section provides a brief history of high-temperature carbonization, specifically as it was developed for the iron and steel industry; reviews coking processes; discusses coal properties of interest for producing coking coals and the uses of coke; and concludes with a review of low-temperature carbonization.

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