Sulfur Dioxide

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) was the first legally binding instrument to address air pollution on a broad regional context [49]. The Convention was adopted in 1979, came into force in 1983, and now has been ratified by 48 countries, as listed in Table 4-7 [49,50]. Under the convention, the countries recognize the transboundary problems of air pollution and accept general responsibility to move toward a solution to these problems. Following the LRTAP Protocol, the SO2 Helsinki Protocol (the "30% Club") was signed in 1985 and came into force in 1987 (see Table 4-7). Under this protocol, the signatories agreed to reduce their SO2 emissions by 30% (based on 1980 values) by 1993 [49]. The Second Sulfur Protocol, the Protocol on Further Reductions of Sulfur Emissions, was signed in June 1994 by 27 European countries, the European Community (EC), and Canada. The protocol came into force in August 1998. All signatories, which are listed in Table 4-7, were allocated targets for 2000, while some countries agreed to additional targets for 2005 and 2010.

The UNECE Gothenburg Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophica-tion, and ground-level ozone was signed by 27 countries in December 1999. As of June 15, 2003, it had 31 signatures and 4 ratifications [50]. The protocol

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