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Turkey (R)

Ukraine (R)

Ukraine (At)

United Kingdom (R)

United Kingdom (R)

United Kingdom

United States (At)

United States (At)

United States

Yugoslavia (Sc)

Note: R, ratification; Ac, accession; Ap, approval; At, acceptance; Sc, succession; *, committing to 30% reduction.

Source: Wu, Z., NOx Control for Pulverized Coal Fired Power Stations, IEA Coal Research, London, 2002. With permission.

Note: R, ratification; Ac, accession; Ap, approval; At, acceptance; Sc, succession; *, committing to 30% reduction.

Source: Wu, Z., NOx Control for Pulverized Coal Fired Power Stations, IEA Coal Research, London, 2002. With permission.

from Large Combustion Plants, and the Directive on National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants [50]. NOZ emission limits for solid fuel-fired boilers in the new EC directives are 600 and 500 mg NOZ per m3 for existing installations with capacities of 50 to 500 and >500 MWt, respectively. These limits become stricter beginning January 1, 2016, for larger units, with the limit decreasing to 200 mg NOZ per m3 for units >500 MWt. Emission limits for new installations with capacities of 50 to 100, 100 to 300, and >300 MWt are, respectively, 400, 200 (300 for biomass-fired units), and 200 mg NOZ per m3. National ceilings for NOZ emissions for 2010, under the EC directive, are shown in Table 4-10 [50].

The World Bank has also developed environmental guidelines that are to be followed in all the projects it funds, thereby covering a host of developing countries. The World Bank has determined that environmental standards of developed countries may not be appropriate for developing countries or economies in transition; therefore, their guidelines are flexible and try to maintain and improve environmental quality on an ongoing basis [50]. The World Bank's NOZ standards are 750 mg NOZ per m3 for all coal-fired power plants except for those firing coal with less than 10% volatile matter content, where the NOZ emission limit is 1300 mg NOZ per m3.

National standards for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants have been adopted or are being introduced in more than 30 countries [50]. They vary widely between countries and are often determined by taking into account the technology available, type of plant (new or existing), size of plant, and boiler configuration. A comparison of emission standards for various countries is provided in Table 4-11 [51].

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