C

Cadmium-96, 107, 109-110, 170 Calcium-96, 109 Calcium hydroxide - 296 Calcium sulfate - 299, 303, 311 Calcium sulfate dihydrate - 296, 298 Calcium sulfite - 95, 299, 303 Calcium sulfite hemihydrate - 296, 298 Carbon dioxide - 81-82, 97, 103,

114-117, 394 Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture - 337 Carbon dioxide capture/control technologies: Advanced conversion processes - 378 Amine absorption - 377 CO2 adsorption - 377 Fluor Daniel Econamine FG CO2

Recovery process - 377 Fuel switching - 376 Oxygen-fired combustion - 378 Post-combustion capture - 378 Pre-combustion de-carbonization -378

Carbon dioxide sequestration: Geologic-379-380 Oceans-379, 381 Terrestrial-379, 381 Carbonic acid - 98 Carboniferous Period - 2, 19, 21-25 Carbonization - 4, 33, 237-238, 241, 248

Carbonization, types: High-temperature - 237-238, 244 Low-temperature - 237, 243-244 Carbon Sequestration Leadership

Forum - 161 Carbon Sequestration Program -

376-377, 379 Carbon tetrachloride - 115 Cardiovascular disease - 99, 110 Carnegie Steel Company - 239 Carter, J.E. Jr., President - 73, 456 Cap-and-trade programs - 145, 158 Catalysts - 341

Central Electricity Generating

Board-219 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart D - 132 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart Da - 132 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart Db - 134 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart Dc - 134-135 Charcoal - 30-32 Chemical treatment system - 84 Cheney, R., Vice President - 73 Child labor - 78 Chlorine - 107, 115 Chlorofluorocarbons - 115 Chromium-96, 107, 109, 170 Chronic lung disease - 99 Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) -

462-463 Chrysene - 106 City gas - 247 Clayton, John - 247 Clean Air Act - 89 Clean Air Act of 1963 - 126-127 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 -

124-125, 128, 130 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 -

139-141, 144 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 -106-107, 126, 134, 137, 139, 142-143, 149 Clean Air Planning Act - 155 Clean coal - 450

Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) -

422, 424-425, 431, 450 Clean Coal Power Initiative Projects: Advanced coal beneficiation processing - 427 Clean coal power - 430

Co-production - 431 Fuel processing - 427 Multipollutant control - 427 On-line optimization systems - 427 TOXECON - 427 Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) - 74, 245, 382, 394-397, 418 Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program Projects: ACFB technology - 407 Advanced coal conversion process

(ACCP) - 416 Advanced combustion/heat engine technology - 414 Advanced electric power generation - 406 Alstom Power LNCFS™ - 404 B&W coal reburning - 403 B&W LNCB® - 403 Blast Furnace Granular-Coal Injection

System Demonstration - 418 Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 AFGD

process - 402 Clean coal combustion system - 414 Coal-fired diesel engine - 415 Coal processing - 415 Coal Quality Expert™ - 416 Combined SO2/NOx Control

Technologies - 404 Confined-zone dispersion (CZD)

FGD - 402 EERC GR/LNB - 403 FLS milfo, Inc.'s Gas Suspension

Absorption system - 401 Fluidized-bed combustion - 406, 421 Foster Wheeler's LNB and

OFA/EPRI's GNOCIS) - 403 Fuel cell - 408 IGCC-408, 410-411, 414 Industrial applications - 418 LFC® Process-415 LIFAC sorbent injection process - 402 LIMB - 405 LMPEOH™ -416 Micronized coal reburning - 403 Molten carbonate fuel cell - 408 Multipollutant control - 405-406 NGR/FSI - 405

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program Projects: (continued) NOx emissions control - 401-402 Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery

Scrubber™-418 PFBC technology - 407 PCFB technology - 406 Pure Air's AFGD process - 402 SCR catalysts - 404 SNOX™ - 404 SNRB™ - 405 SO2 emissions control - 401 Solid oxide fuel cell - 408 Clean Power Act - 115 Clean Water Act - 89 Clear Skies Act of 2002 - 155, 158, 161,

383, 424, 427 Climatic changes - 115 Coal - 21-22, 35, 54, 57, 63, 66, 68, 451 Coal analyses:

Calorific determination - 5 Heating value - 5-6, 8 Proximate - 5 Ultimate - 5 Coal analysis bases: As received - 5 Dry-5

Dry, ash-free - 5 Dry, mineral-matter free - 4-6 Moist, ash-free - 6 Moist, mineral matter-free - 6 Coal Basins: Appalachian - 19, 292 Bowen - 24 Central German - 25 Dneiper - 22 Dontesk - 21-22 Ekibastuz - 22 Gippsland - 24 Great Karoo - 25 Illinois - 19 Jharia - 23

Kansk-Achinsk - 21-22 Karaganda - 22 Kuznetsk-21-22 Lower Silesian - 22 Lublin - 22 Lusatian - 25 Pechora - 21

Powder River - 20 Raniganj - 23 Rhineland - 25 Ruhr - 25 Saar - 25 Sidney - 24 Upper Silesian - 22 Coal beneficiation - 77 Coal cleaning - 91, 287, 295 Coal coking - 8 Coal combustion - 8 Coal combustion by-products

(CCB) - 77, 95-96 Coal combustion products

63-69, 71 Coal deposits - 1, 12, 41 Coal grade-2, 8, 10 Coal exports - 50, 65, 67-68, 72 Coal gas - 32, 34, 247 Coal imports - 50 Coal maturation - 6 Coal mineralogy - 8 Coal mining - 78-80, 84, 89, 94, 115 Coal Power Program - 394, 437, 467 Coal preparation - 8, 90-91, 94 Coal production - 34, 41, 43-44, 46-47,

65-66, 68, 72, 86 Coal properties (gasification): ash - 254 fixed carbon - 254 moisture - 253 reactivity - 255 volatile matter - 254 Coal Provinces: Alaskan - 19-20 Anhui- 23 Eastern - 17, 19 Guizhou - 23 Gulf - 17, 20 Henan - 23 Heilongjiang - 23 Inner Mongolia - 23 Interior - 17, 19 Jiangxi - 23

Northern Great Plains - 19-21 Pacific Coast - 19-20 Rocky Mountain - 19-20

Shaanxi - 23 Shandong - 23 Shanxi- 23 Coal quality - 91 Coal rank-2, 6, 12, 19, 21, 80 Coal refuse - 93-94 Coal regions: Appalachian - 19, 41, 292 Central (Appalachian Basin) - 19 Eastern (Interior Province) - 19 Fort Union (Northern Great Plains

Province) - 20 Interior - 46

Mississippi (Gulf Province) - 20 Southern (Appalachian Basin) - 19 Texas (Gulf Province) - 20 Western - 47

Western (Interior Province) - 19 Coal reserves - 1, 12-14, 17, 20-26 Coal resources - 12-13 Coal seam - 1, 3, 41, 80 Coal slurry - 95 Coal transportation - 95 Coal type - 1

Coalbed methane (CBM) - 81 Coalbeds - 41 Coalfields: Appalachian - 82 Green River - 20 Hanna - 20 Hanna Fork - 20 Neyveli - 23 Coalification - 2-4, 8 Coal mine methane (CMM) - 81-82 Cobalt - 96, 107, 109 Codification - 8, 10 Coke - 8, 22-25, 32-33, 64, 72,

254, 306 Coke production - 34, 241 Combustion - 33, 91, 97, 195,

208-209, 211 Committee on Coal Waste Impoundments - 94 Conditioning agents - 354 Confined Zone Dispersion

(CZD) - 315 Continuous emissions monitors

(CEMs) - 146 Concentrating tables - 92

Conservation - 447

Consumer Price Index (CPI) - 451

Copper-96, 109-110, 170

Copper casting - 30

Corrosion - 98

Cretaceous Period - 21, 26

Criteria air pollutants - 106, 109, 128,

152, 173, 175 Critical viscosity - 233 Crude oil - 35, 39, 54 Crude oil imports - 35 Culm bank recovery - 86 Cunningham correction factor - 350 Cyclones - 92

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