°Based on dry flue gas at 6% O2, STP (0°C [275 K], 101.3 kPa).

^European Union (EU) country.

cNational guidelines.

dProposed standards.

eBased on annual quota totals.

f EU proposed limits scheduled to come into operation after January 1, 2000. New plants, 50-100 MWt, 850 mg/m3; >300 MWt, 200 mg/m3; 100-300 MWt, sliding scale within upper and lower limits proposed.

^European Parliament proposed limits for existing plants granted a license before January 1, 2000, scheduled to become mandatory from January 1, 2005. Existing plants, 50-100 MWt, 900 mg/m3; >300 MWt, 300 mg/m3; 100-300 MWt, sliding scale within upper and lower limits proposed. ^Flue gas desulfurization.

iMust have met new plant standards by January 1, 2000.

'Set on a plant-by-plant basis according to nationally defined formula.

^New and existing industrial plants.

Source: Soud, H. N., Developments in FGD, IEA Coal Research, London, 2000. With permission.

Convention on LRTAP also addressed transboundary NOx emissions. Table 4-9 lists the signatories to the UNECE Convention on LRTAP and the status of each country [50]. The Sofia NOx protocol was signed in 1998 by 23 countries and came into force in 1991. The protocol required that NO x emissions be frozen at 1987 levels by the end of 1994 and that these levels be maintained in subsequent years. The protocol has 25 signatures and 28 ratifications as listed in Table 4-9 [50]. Table 4-9 also contains the signatories to the 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-Level Ozone. The protocol, signed in Gothenburg, Sweden, places NOx emission limits of 400, 300, and 200 mg NOx per m3 for new installations with capacities of 50 to 100, 100 to 300, and >300 MWt, respectively [50]. Existing installations are limited to 650 mg NOx per m3 for solid fuels in general and 1300 mg NOx per m3 for solid fuels with >10% volatile matter content.

The EC has adopted several directives and amendments, including the Directive on Controlling Emissions from Large Combustion Plants, the Directive on the Limitation of Emissions of Certain Pollutants into the Air

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